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Determinants of Student’s Academic Performance Essay

It is a positive statement when one says that man of modern society is so advanced in education, both in the science and in technology, but won’t mind nor think about what steps he could make or trace what good he could do for his fellowmen. He does not live in terms of attitudes acceptable in the society where he lives. A man today is more conscious of his own personal upliftment, keeps innocent of knowing his worth which would be undeniably great if he is treading the right way.

Everyone has a right in education. This is embodied in Article XIV Section I of the Philippine Constitution 1987: The state shall protect and promote the right of all citizens to quality education to all levels and shall take appropriate steps to make such education accessible to all. Schools, colleges, and universities have no work without student. Students are most essential assets for any educational institute. The social and economic development of the country is directly linked with student academic performance. The students performance place an important role in producing the best quality graduates who will become great leader and manpower for the country thus responsible for the country’s economic and social development. So the parents or guardians must do their responsibilities and roles to give what they need in education.

Intelligence is not the only determinant of the academic performance of the student. Academic performance of a student is always associated with the many components of learning environment. Learning and teaching environment ought to implement six functions: inform, communicate, collaborate, produce, scaffold, and manage. The key to success in learning-teaching environment lies on people who use it. Hence, in the instructional system, the teacher is the main factor who can spell the difference between success and failure of a student. Another important determinant, which shouldn’t be neglected, is the family. Family is the primary social system for students for all cultures across the region.

Religiosity as an aspect of the family environment is another independent variable possibly influencing academic performance. Higher-achieving students are likely to have the following characteristics: positive feelings about their school experiences, attribute their success in high school to such things as hard work, self-discipline, organization, ability, and high motivation, these characteristics vary from person to person and country to country.


This study determined the related factors to the academic performance of Bachelor of Science in Respiratory Therapy, second year students at Cagayan State University. To attain the aforementioned objective, answer to the following research questions were sought. 1. What is the profile of the BSRT 1st year students in terms of:

A. Personal Factors:
a. 1. Sex
a. 2. Parent’s occupation
a. 3. Sibling number
a. 4. Physical health
a. 5. Student attitude
a. 6. Religion or Ethnicity
B. School Factors:
b. 1. No vision
b. 2. Lack of passion
b. 3. Lack of personal/work/school/family balance
b. 4. Lack of taking advantage of student resources
b. 5. Attending the wrong college or university
b. 6. Lack of maturity and discipline
C. Community Factors:
c. 1. School distance from home
c. 2. Means of transportation
D. Intrinsic Factors:
d.1 . Interest
d.2 . Ability
E. Extrinsic Factors:
e.1 Family Factor
e.2 Peers
F. Aspirations
G. Needs

A. What are the determinants of the academic performance of the BSRT 1st year students? B. Is there a relationship between the profile and the academic performance of the BSRT 1st year students? C. How do the teachers perceive the academic performance of the BSRT 1st year students?


This research study is centered on the factors related to the academic performance and attitudes of the BSRT 1st year students at Cagayan State University, Andrew’s Campus. The profile of Bachelor of Science in Respiratory Therapy 1st year students in the terms of personal, school and community factors were determined. Likewise, the teacher’s perceptions on the academic performance of the BSRT 1st year students were considered. Furthermore, the relationship between the BSRT 1st year profile and academic performance were also determined. Lastly, the variable that contributes to the variation of the Bachelor of Science in Respiratory Therapy 1st year students’ academic performance was established.


It is with optimism that the findings of this study would contribute the development of macro educational system particularly at Cagayan State University in terms of the determinants related to the academic performance of BSRT 1st year students.

Furthermore, it is hoped that feedback of data gathered would be used as clues for recommending changes for improvement in fulfilling practices, performance that are relevant and responsive to the demand of our educational system.

Moreover, result of this study, would guide the teachers in improving their classroom management, instructional methods and strategies to equip their students the needed preparation for their future careers.

Likewise, the parents would be made knowledgeable on determinants of academic performance of their child; therefore, they can suit a proper program of activities for their child for a better performance.

It is also hoped that this study shall help the school maintain a harmonious relationship with the community in playing its vital role for the progress and development through people empowerment.

Summing up, the findings of this study would contribute to the attainment of educational excellence and the national development goal, the conversion of the Philippines into a newly industrialized country.


1. Ability-


Student academic performances are affected due to social, psychological, economic, environmental, and personal factors. The learning environment refers to the whole range of components and activities within which learning happens (Bahr, Hawks, & Wang 1993).


The socio-economic status of students is directly proportional to their scholastic performance.

1. Parents Occupation
According to Ruben as cited by Ramiro, (1996) that the effect of low income reflects lack of education or training, physical or mental disability or poor motivation. Students with parents who were both college educated tended to achieve at the highest levels. Income and family size were modestly related to achievement (Ferguson, 1991). Middle class parents tend to be college graduate although some only graduated from high school, and many only reached elementary. Bremberk (1996) found out that an increase in the percentage of parents with college degree and white collar job have a better effect on school performance. Parents’ educational attainment is related to the school achievement of the youth.

2. Sibling Number
Children from large families maybe handicapped because they get relatively source of the family’s intellectual resources than those children from smaller families (Draig 1998). 3. Attitudes of the Student

Performance and attitudes characteristics are strong determinants of academic achievement as cited by Marcos, (1998). According to Santrock, (1998) when our attitude is based on personal experience our behavior is more likely reflect our attitudes. When we have thought about our attitude towards something and have ready access it, the attitude behavior connection is strengthen. In the words of John Locke, “The actions of men are the best interpreter of their thoughts”. Ramiro, (1996) mentioned that habits of students are very much related to education. The relationship would contribute something substantial in the academic performance of student in their respective school and homes greatly affect their standing in school.

Education is a continuous process in which every parent aims to give it as a gift to their children for their future. Abracia, (1984) stated that schools was considered as a second home of learners because it is a plays where to know everything; wherein a teacher serves as their parents.

1. No vision
According to Wollitkiewics,(1980) Some students do not have a clearly articulated picture of the future they intend to create for themselves. Thus, they may take programs of study without a clear career goal or objective. In essence, they choose the wrong major.

2. Lack of passion
In a study conducted by Salinas, (1989) she emphasized that successful students work out of passion, a love for what they want to do, and recognize the importance of the benefit it will bring others as well as themselves. Without passion, study becomes a chore and not a method for achieving clearly defined goals. 3. Lack of personal/work/school/family balance

Whatever is going on in a student’s personal life, will inevitably affect what’s going on in school. Whatever is happening in school will affect what’s going on in their personal life. A student needs time to be in class, and appropriate time for study. However, there must be time for family, friends, social activities, and time to just be alone. The key is keeping proper balance (Kalko, Elisabeth, K.V., et al. 2006) 4. Lack of taking advantage of student resources

There is really no reason for academic failure. According to San Luis, (2003) every college and university has an academic learning center where students can receive peer and faculty tutoring, without charge. Many students fail to seek help. 5. Attending the wrong college or university

Tylan, (1998) found that students accept admission into schools they are not familiar with. Thus, they become depressed with their surroundings. Student must be content with their school, its environment, and resources. This, in turn has a negative effect on their studies. 6. Lack of maturity and discipline

Some students are just not disciplined and lack good organizational skills. They often fall under the pressure of their peers. (Corpus, 1999) Rather than using good discretion, they feel compelled to follow others (socially), when they really should be attending to their studies.


Intrinsic motivation refers to motivation that is driven by an interest or enjoyment in the task itself. It occurs when people are internally motivated to do something because it either brings them pleasure, they think it is important, or they feel that what they are learning is significant. Students are likely to be intrinsically motivated if they attribute their educational results to factors under their own control, also known as autonomy (http://en.wikipedia .org/wiki/Motivation#intrinsic_and_extrinsic_motivation). Intrinsic means internal or inside of yourself. When you are intrinsically motivated, you enjoy an activity, course or skill development solely for the satisfaction of learning and having fun, and you are determined to be inwardly in order to be competent (

According to Dr. James Gavin, intrinsic motivation is derived from a self-concept, core beliefs, internal need and development opposed to extrinsic motivators which can undermine these motivations. Motives needs to be additive in effect, which means the more reasons you find to motivate yourself to engage in a behavior, the more likely you will continue with and persist in these behaviors. External motivators are typically not additive. Extrinsic motivation, on the other hand, means external or outside of yourself, this type of motivation is everywhere and frequently used within the society throughout your lifetime. When you are motivated to behave, learn, or do based on highly regarded outcome, rather than for fun, development or learning provided within an experience, you are being extrinsically motivated (

1. Family

Probably the strongest influence in our lives is the family we grew up. Our birth order, the personality of our parents, the way we were treated by our siblings, the socio economic status of the family and the place we lived. Besides these tacit influences, our parents taught us all the basics of proper behavior (“Family influence”.3rd ed. New York. Ronald M. Doctor, Ada P. Kahn 2008). Rollins and Thomas found that high parental control were associated with high achievement. Parents have a crucial role to make sure that every child becomes high achiever. Parental influence has been identified as an important factor affecting student achievement. Philips (1998) also found that parental education and social economic status have an impact on student performance.

2. Influence of Peers

Peers groups play a powerful role in shaping identity because the desire to be accepted by one’s peers and “fit in” with one’s peers often becomes paramount concern for most adolescents. Peer groups are likely to impose negative sanctions upon those who violate what are perceived as established norms of behavior and who attempt to construct identities that deviate significantly from prevailing conceptions of racial and gender identity ( Peers refer to people who are of the same age, educational level, or have the same job or profession. According to Christine Adamec, (2008), a peer group can cause anxieties for an individual because it can arouse feelings of self concept, low self esteem, and other negative attitudes and behavior.


This chapter presents the research design, the locale of the study, the respondents and sampling procedure, the instrument and statistical tools used to treat the data collected.


Since this study will determine the academic performances of BSRT 2nd year students at Cagayan State University, the researchers will use the descriptive correlational method. Descriptive method often involves extensive observation and note-taking. It describes data and characteristics about the population or phenomenon being studied. The correlational method of research will also used to deal with their relationship between and among the input, transformation process and output variables. The researchers used this method since the condition and description of the subjects and variables at the time of the study will determine.


The College of Allied Health and Sciences was located at Cagayan State University, Tuguegarao. This was composed of two courses- Bachelor of Science in Medical Technology and Bachelor of Science in Respiratory Therapy. The researchers will only focus to the 2nd year BSRT students.


The principal instrument used in collecting data needed was questionnaire. It is composed of structured questions regarding personal factors, school factors, community factors, intrinsic factors, extrinsic factors and students’ academic performance, each item will be provided with possible answer for the choices of the respondents. The academic performance of the students will be derived through documentary analysis.

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