Social determinants of health are the circumstances in which people are born, grow up, live, work, and age, as well as the systems put in place to deal with illness. These circumstances are in turn shaped by a wider set of forces: economics, social policies, and politics.Social determinants of health are factors in the social environment that contribute to or detract from the health of individuals and communities. These factors include, but are not limited to the following: Socioeconomic status,Transportation,Housing,Access to services,Discrimination by social grouping (e.g., race, gender, or class),Social or environmental stressors.Certain factors that contribute to the development of illness are: Poverty,Unemployment,High School Education, Health Insurance.
Communicable diseases spread from one person to another or from an animal to a person. The spread often happens via airborne viruses or bacteria, but also through blood or other bodily fluid. The terms infectious and contagious are also used to describe a communicable disease. A communicable disease chain is the chain of infection,which includes: INFECTIOUS DISEASE:Any microorganism that can cause a disease such as a bacterium, virus, parasite, or fungus. RESERVOIR: The place where the microorganism resides, thrives, and reproduces, i.e., food, water, toilet seat, elevator buttons, human feces, respiratory secretions. PORTAL OF EXIT : The place where the organism leaves the reservoir, such as the respiratory tract (nose, mouth), intestinal tract (rectum), urinary tract, or blood and other body fluids.
MODE OF TRANSMISSION :The means by which an organism transfers from one carrier to another by either direct transmission (direct contact between infectious host and susceptible host) or indirect transmission (which involves an intermediate carrier like an environmental surface or piece of medical equipment). PORTAL OF ENTRY : The opening where an infectious disease enters the host’s body such as mucus membranes, open wounds, or tubes inserted in body cavities like urinary catheters or feeding tubes. SUSCEPTIBLE HOST :The person who is at risk for developing an infection from the disease.