To achieve the Content Standard (Standar Isi) in the curriculum which covers the Competency Standard (Standar Kompetensi (SK)) and the Basic Competency (Kompetensi Dasar(KD)), students should go through the teaching and learning process.
Educational Ministry Regulation number 41, the year of 2007 about the Process Standard states that every school teacher should make Lesson Plans (Rencana Pelaksanaan Pembelajaran(RPP)) to foster the teaching and learning process to be interactive, inspirative, joyful, challenging, motivating the students to participate actively, and giving enough opportunities to them to be innovative, creative and self reliance according to their talents, motivations, and physical as well as psychological development.
Through out this module, the important elements of a lesson plan will be discussed. You are supposed to be able to implement your knowledge concerning language teaching and learning such as language competency, methodology and approaches to foreign language learning, media and learning resources, and language assessment in developing lesson plans. By completing of every parts presented in this module you will be able to design lesson plans which can fulfill the required process standard mentioned above.
Through the elaborations and the discussions of important factors and elements in lesson planning, you will be prepared to be able to carry out the teaching and learning process as requested by the new curriculum (KTSP)
After completing this module you are supposed to be able to : 1. state the important elements of lesson planning.
2. determine the indicators of achieving the basic competencies 3. formulate the objectives of the teaching and learning
4. select relevant learning materials
5. plan the stages of teaching and learning activities
6. assess the students achievements
DESIGNING LESSON PLAN
A. The Concept of Lesson Plan
Think about these three questions
Discuss them; how they relate to the lesson planning
A lesson plan is a teacher’s detailed description of the course of instruction for an individual lesson. (Wikipedia, accessed on the 6th of September 2009). The government regulation No. 19, the year of 2005 states that the planning for instructional process covers the sylabus and the lesson plan containing the purpose, learning materials, methodology, the learning resources and the evaluation. Those are the components of a lesson plan. But by the discussion you have just done, we may conclude that those components could be summarized into three important aspects; the purpose of the instruction (question 1), the learning activity (question2), and the feedback or evaluation (question3).
Based on the ministry regulation, number 41, year 2007, the process standard, it was explained that a Lesson plan is the elaboration of syllabus which illustrates the teaching and learning activities to achieve the goals of the basic competency. Every teacher who uses school curriculum, should design a plan completely and systematically to make the teaching and learning interactive, inspirative, joyful, challenging, and be able to motivate students to be active, creative, and self reliance, in line with their talent, motivation, their physical and psychological development.
This statement is mostly about the teaching and learning activities. Every stage of the lesson should be planned to fulfill the above requirements and make certain that the instructional objectives could be achieved.
B. The components of a Lesson Plan
Share your experiences with your friends for the lesson plans you have ever made. Which components do you think is the most difficult to write?
A Lesson plan is designed to meet the basic competencies, which can be carried out in one meeting or more. Things that should be written in the lesson plan are as follows:
1. Identity of the subject matter which consists of;
a. Title of the lesson
b. Class/ Semester
c. Program (especially for Senior High)
e. Time allotment
2. Competency Standard
Competency Standard is the qualification of the students’ minimal ability, which illustrates the mastery of knowledge, attitude, and skill obtained through each class or semester for every subject.
3. Basic Competency
Basic competency is a sum of students’ ability for certain subjects as the reference for determining the indicators for competency achievement in a subject.
4. Indicator for competency achievement
The measurable or observable behavior, which shows the achievement of specific basic competency as the reference for the subject evaluation. The indicators for competency achievement are formulated with operational verbs that can be measured which cover the knowledge, attitude, and skills.
5. The Instructional goal
Instructional goal illustrates the process and the learning outcome achieved by the students in accordance to the basic competency
6. Instructional material
It includes the fact, concept, principle, and the relevant procedure, and written as suitable items in relation to the indicators for competency achievement.
7. Time allotment
Time is allocated as much as needed to achieve the Basic competency and the learning load.
Methods are used by teachers to create the teaching and learning process to enable the students to achieve the basic competency or a set of specified indicators. The choice of methods should consider the students’ situation and condition as well as the characteristics of every indicators and the competency which will be achieved in every subjects.
9. Learning activities
a) Pre- activity
This activity is done at the beginning of the lesson and meant for arousing the students’ motivation and to focuss the students’ attention as well, so that they can particípate actively during the lesson.
b) Whilst activity
This is the main learning process and aimed at achieving the basic competency. This activity is conducted interactively, inspiratively, joyfully, chalenging, motivating the students to participate actively, and giving opportunities to the students to have innovation, creativity, and selfreliance in accordance to their talent, motivation, physical and psychological development. This activity is conducted systematically through exploration, elaboration, and conformation processes.
c) Post activity
This activity is done to end the lesson which can be in the form of summarizing, evaluation, reflection, feedback , and follow up activities. Stages of Learning Activity :
The procedure and the instruments for assessment should be based on the indicators for competency achievement and refer to the evaluation standard
11. Learning Resource
Selecting the learning resource should concider the competency standard and the basic competency, as well as the learning material, the teaching and learning activities and also the indicators for competency achievement.
C. The Principles of Designing Lesson Plan
– Take any English lesson plan you have had.
– Try to make a judgment for this (excellent, good, or poor) – What criteria do you take for consideration?
a. Individual differences
Consider the individual differences concerning students’ level of mastery, interest, motivation, potential, emotion, learning style, special need, learning speed, socio cultural background, values, and living environment.
b. Fostering students’ participation
The lesson should be students-focus and fostering, creativity, initiative, inspiration, self reliance, and learning motivation.
c. Developing students’ reading and writing habits
Teaching and learning should develop students’ reading habits on various resources and their ability to express feelings and opinions in different forms of writing.
d. Giving feedback and follow up
A lesson plan should include activities which can give positive feedback, reinforcement, enrichment, and remedial.
e. Link and Unity
Lesson plan is designed considering the links and the unity among the competency standard, basic competency, learning material, instructional activities, and indicators for competency achievement, evaluation, and learning resources. Lesson plan should accommodate the thematic instructions, links with other subjects, across the learning aspects, and cultural diversity.
f. Employing the information and communication technology
Lesson plan is written to foster the use of information and communication technology, integrated, systematic, and effective depending on the situation and condition.
D. The Stages of Developing a Lesson Plan
A well developed lesson plan reflects interests and needs of students. It incorporates best practices for the educational field. (Skowron, Janice.2006). In Indonesian schooling, the Curriculum of School Level (KTSP) has already been set up by the content standard (SK) and the graduation standard (SKL). Therefore students should be able to achieve what so called the minimum requirements which have been stated in those two documents. The students’ interest relates to the learning materials and depends on how the learning activity is conducted.
Therefore you must employ various kinds of methods and approaches. The use of teaching aids and media may also be inspiring and increasing the students’ motivation. According to the process standard (Educational Ministry Regulation no.41, the year of 2007) a lesson plan is a unit plan which covers one basic competency and the time span may be more than one meeting.
But the English curriculum and syllabus developed in the content standard are directed to follow the two cycles (oral and written), and the four stages (building knowledge of the field, model of the text, joint construction, and independent construction). Therefore, English lesson plans should be integrated units which may cover more than one single basic competency; listening and speaking for the oral cycle, reading and writing for the written cycle. Integrating all the four basic skills will also be possible. Here are the stages of designing an English Lesson Plan :
Mapping the Competency Standard and the Basic Competency
Determining the indicators for basic competency achievement
Setting up the Purpose
Selecting the Learning Material
Structuring the stages of instruction
Preparing the assessment
The flow of a lesson development :
1. Mapping the Competency Standard and the Basic Competency
This stage is ideally done when designing the syllabus. The Competency Standard and the Basic Competency which can directly picked up from the documents are to be analyzed and put into units. English or language in general has special characteristics which might be different from other subjects. The competency based curriculum developed in the content standard is prepared to teach students the communicative competency which covers the actional competence, linguistic competence, socio cultural competence, and strategic competence.
The competencies are interrelated to each other and the core of those four competencies is the discourse competence. (Kurikulum Berbasis Kompetensi, Bahasa Inggris, 2004) Diagram 5: Model Kompetensi Komunikatif (Celce-Murcia et al. 1995:10)
In general, there four Competency Standards; Listening, Speaking, Reading, and Writing which are states in the documents of content standard (SI), attachment for English subject. Your task is to select the basic competencies which can be combined into unit plans considering the suggested aproach in designing the stages of instruction (four stages in two cycles).
Here is examples of mapping the basic competencies :
Class VII/ Semester 1
SK 1 dan 3.
KD Listening 1.1 dan KD Speaking 3.1 & 3.2
Merespon makna , melakukan : Tindak tutur :
Menyapa orang yang belum/sudah dikenal
Memperkenalkan diri sendiri/orang lain
Memerintah atau melarang
Class IX/ Semester 1
SK 5 dan 6
KD Reading 5.3 dan KD Writing 6.2
Merespon makna dan langkah retorika dan Mengungkapkan makna dan langkah retorika: monolog
descriptive dan recount
2. Determining the indicators for basic competency achievement.
Indicators reflect measurable or observable behavior to show the achievement for the basic competency which will be used as the reference of the assessment. Indicators for achievement should be written by using operational verbs covering the knowledge, attitude, and skills.
i.e. : – knowledge : mentioning, interpreting, defining, completing, summarizing, explaining, developing, etc. – attitude : participating, adjusting, helping, proposing, serving, inspiring, etc.
– skill : expressing, practicing, fixing, arranging, demonstrating, etc.
3. Setting up the Purpose
Educational Ministry Regulation No. 41, about the Process Standard states that the Purpose of Instruction describes the process and the learning
outcome expected to be achieved by the students referring to the basic competency. (Tujuan pembelajaran menggambarkan proses dan hasil belajar yang diharapkan dicapai oleh peserta didik sesuai dengan kompetensi dasar).
The two aspects you have to include in setting up the purpose are :
It reflects the expected students activities during the lesson. The activities should student centered. The more students involved through out the lesson would be the better. Consider the students’ motivation, interest, challenge, and creativity. i.e. – Listening : minimal pair, sound identificatifying, gap-filling, predicting, comprehending etc.
– Speaking : interactive communication activities, role playing, scenario, speech, debating, interviewing, dialogue, etc.
– Reading : scanning, skimming, reading intensively, predicting, classifying, etc.
– Writing : co-operative writing, drafting, analyzing, guided writing, programming, listing, revising, reviewing, giving comments, summarizing, etc.
b.The learning outcome
It refers to the achievement of the basic competencies covering the knowledge, attitude, and skills.
i.e. : – responding meaning to different kinds of text type.
– expressing meaning for different kinds of purposes
– pronouncing, reading aloud etc.
4. Selecting Learning Material
The learning materials prepared for the lesson plan should be based on the students’ literacy level; performative, functional, or informative. The latest is meant for high school. In performative level, students are taught how to use English to accompany actions, participate in classroom and school interactions, and recognize simple written English. While in the functional level students are supposed to learn to use English to get things done, for survival purposes (buying and selling, asking and giving permission, making and canceling appointments, read and write simple texts, read popular science, etc.)
You have to remember that our English curriculum is text based. Therefore we have to select the material according to the suggested text type. For junior high school are descriptive, procedure, recount, narrative, and report. While news item, discussion, explanation, exposition, and review are for senior high school.
There are various resources where we can get the learning materials. Any learning material will be applicable as long as they can meet the curriculum requirement of teaching the students for communicative purposes. They might be presented in all types of communication, transactional conversation, Interpersonal conversation, Informational texts (spoken and written) in the daily life context.
For example :
Transactional conversation : giving directions in various contexts (kitchen, street etc.) Interpersonal conversation : talking about how to do things casually for the sake of maintaining conversation
5. Structuring the stages of instruction
The lesson is carried out through three phases; Pre-activity, Whilst-activity, and Post-activity. a. Pre- activity This activity is done at the beginning of the lesson and meant for arousing the students’ motivation and to focus the students’ attention as well, so that they can participate actively during the lesson. b. Whilst activity
This is the main learning process and aimed at achieving the basic competency. This is suggested to follow the two-cycle approach (oral and written) and the four stages of lesson development; Building Knowledge of the Field (BKOF), Modeling of the Text (MOT), Joint Construction of the Text (JCOT), and Independent Construction of the Text (ICOT). This approach is in line with the flow of a lesson mentioned in the process standard; exploration, elaboration, and confirmation. Exploration = BKOF
Elaboration = MOT
Confirmation = JCOT, and ICOT
c. Post activity
This activity is done to end the lesson which can be in the form of summarizing, evaluation, reflection, feedback, and follow up activities.
5. Preparing the assessment
Assessment is a method of evaluating student performance and attainment, Microsoft® Encarta® 2009. This stage focuses on ensuring that your students have arrived at their intended destination and has been formulated as the indicators for competency achievement. For this, you will need to gather some evidence that they have done. You usually can do by gathering students’ work and assessing this work using some kind of grading rubric that is based on the indicators. You could also give test to the students on various domains as well. Here are what we have to assess :
– Communication that happens in texts
– Students’ ability to create and respond to texts
– In listening, speaking, reading, and writing
The texts that we may use :
– Informational texts
-Transactional and interpersonal dialogues
– Monologues in the target genres
– Informational texts
– Essays in the target genres
Test items should not measure the students’ knowledge on the rules of the language. Instead they should be focus on meanings. The meanings tested are :
– Ideational meaning (isi berita)
– Interpersonal meaning (tujuan text, tindak tutur)
-Textual meaning (termasuk punctuation)
– Logical meaning (hubungan logis antar gagasan)
6. An Example of a Lesson Plan
Engish Version :
Subject : English language
Class/Semester : VII (Seven) / 1
Text types : Transactional / Interpersonal
Theme : Personal Life
Skill : Listening
Time allotment : 2 x 40 minutes
Competency Standard : 1. To understand the meaning of transactional and interpersonal dialogues to interact with the closest environment. Basic Competencies : 1.1. To response the meaning in the transactional ( to get things done) and interpersonal dialogue which is used in the simple oral communication accurately, fluently, understandable to interact with the closest environment that involves: greeting people/ friends, self introduction, others, ordering and forbidding somebody. To ask and to forbid. Greeting strangers / familiar people
Introducing selves and other people
Ordering / forbidding
Indicators for Achievement :
The students are able to:
a. response the expression of hello from the strangers
b. response the expression of self introduction.
c. response the expressions of other people’s introductions. d. response the comment expression.
e. response forbid expression.
f. response the expression of hello from the familiar people
Through modeling and interactive activities, students can conduct simple
communication in the transactional and interpersonal dialogues. Learning Materials:
Dialogues that uses the following expressions :
1. A : Good morning. How are you ?
B : Good morning. Fine thank you.
2. A : Hello, I’m Nina. Nice to meet you
B : Hello, I’m Renny. Nice to meet you, too
3. A : Don’t do that !
B : No, I won’t. Don’t worry
4. A : Stop it !
B : Ok
Vocabularies related to text-type and theme, e.g : name, live, address, etc. Verbs : live, meet, do, stop, have
To be : is, am, are
Personal Pronouns : I, you, we, they, he, she, it
Standard expression :
– Good morning
– Don’t worry
– Nice to meet you
– How are you ?
a. Teaching method/ Strategy : Three-phase technique
A. Pre- activities
Question and answer about things related to students’ life Students answer the questions of personnal identity
B. Whilst activities
1. To discuss new vocabulary of the texts
2. To listen some sentences of teachers models
3. To guess the meaning and function of sentences produced by teachers 4. To immitate some sentences of teachers’ pornounciation
5. To listen to the dialogue of introductions
6. To answer the question of the content of the dialogue.
7. To response to the expressions of greeting, introduction, command, and
prohibition. 8. To act out the teacher’s commands.
1. To ask the students’ difficulties in learning activities. 2. To summarize the learning materials.
3. To give students some tasks of using expressions in the real situation
The relevant text book : … ( title, author, publisher, year, page ) Script of dialogues or dialogue recording
The relevant pictures
Technique: Responding to the expressions / questions orally and written . Forms : oral questions
Test Items :
Part I : Listen to the expressions and give your response orally Good morning. How are you?
……………………………………………………………….. Hi, I’m Reno and you are?
……………………………………………………………….. Are you Anisa?
……………………………………………………………….. Hello, it’s nice to meet you
……………………………………………………………….. Who is that girl?
……………………………………………………………….. Part II : Listen to the expressions and choose the best response, a, b, c or d.
1. A: Hello, how are you ?
B : …
a. Fine, thanks b. I’m Renny
c. Thank you d. Don’t worry 2. A: Is that your sister, Anna ?
B : …
a. Yes, it is b. No, she’s not here c. I don’t know d. Very well, thanks. 3. A: Budi, this is my friend, Susan.
B : Hi, Susan …
a. Fine, thanks. b. It’s Ok c. Nice to see you d. I’m alright 4. A: Open the door !
B : …
a. OK b. Fine b. Fine
c. Good d. Really 5. A: Don’t be late to school.
B : …
a. Yes, Sir b. No, Sir
c. Ok, Sir d. Fine, Sir Scoring guide:
1. For part I, each correct item is scored 3
2. For part II, each correct item is scored 2
3. Total Score Part I : 5 x 3 = 15
Part II : 5 x 2 = 10
TOTAL : 25
4. Maximal score = 10
5. Students’ score =
Rubrics for Part I:
Content and grammar are correct
The content is correct, grammar is wrong
Content and grammar are not correct
For every correct answer
For every wrong answer/ no answera
Approved by :
School Principal English Teacher
RESOURCES FOR LESSON PLAN IDEAS ON THE INTERNET
A large collection of lesson plans, teacher guides, and online student activities correlated to 90 sets of state and national curriculum standards. http://www.pbs.org/teachersource/
Best of Education World® 2002
Education World® – Lesson Planning Center
Education World® – National Standards