Describe the 4 phases of demographic transition, including if the population is stable, growing, or declining in each. · * According to demographers, what factors lead to a decline in the crude birth rates (CBR) and crude death rates (CDR) in the epidemiologic and fertility phases of the demographic transition? · * Briefly describe three living conditions and/or environmental impacts in developed countries that have reached phase IV, and contrast them with these conditions or impacts in developing countries that remain in earlier phases. * Assuming that the demographic transition phase IV is a goal for developing countries, what two programs or initiatives would you suggest to assist them in progress toward this goal? The demographic transition is a theory that sought to explain demographic, originally, the relationship between demographic change and socio-economic changes that took place in the eighteenth century in the developed countries of Europe and thus the relationship between population, development and population growth.
The demographic transition explain the shift from a preindustrial demographic regime, leaded by head rates of mortality and birth to another industry with strong population growth and subsequently postindustrial, with very low rates of death and birth. There are four phases of demographic transition:
1. The first stage, typical of pre-industrial societies, birth rates and death rates are too high, so the natural increase of the population is slow. This stage is the one that marked the history of humanity from its origins to the eighteenth century. In the Middle Ages and the Modern ages birth and mortality rates were close to 50%. In this phase, many children were born while at the same time. Mortality was very high even in years of ordinary life by the insecurity, poor nutrition, hygiene, sanitation, etc. Even more in the years of catastrophic mortality caused by war, famine or epidemics.
2. In the second phase, the mortality drops and the birth rate remains high, as a result, vegetative growth increased. It is typically of developed countries. Mortality rates down suddenly because of improvements in agricultural techniques that increased crops, improved technology, advances n medicine and literacy. Such changes are crucial to prolong live expectance of people and reduce mortality. In this stage, there is an very significant increase of population.
3. In the phase three, there is the final of the transition. Birth rates initiate a significant decline motivated by the access to contraception, the incorporation of women to education and labor market, access to the welfare state, the process of urbanization, replacing subsistence agriculture by agricultural market, along with other social changes. The mortality rate continues the downward trend which began in the stage two and for this reason, population growth in this stage remains relative high. The birth rate falls, the mortality rate has reached low levels which slows vegetative growth.
4. On the phase four, the demographic regimen modern is typical of post-industrial societies and is characterized by the significant decrease of birth rate which is almost equal to death rate. Consequently, with both rates in similar figures, for very low, the Natural population growth is very low or almost zero. According to the demographer Omran, the factors that lead to a decline of birth rates and mortality rates in the epidemiologic phase are the infectious deseases, this replaces the chronic illness. The age of plagues and famine which prevents the sustained growth of the population with a life expectancy low and variable. Another factor is the era of degenerative illness caused by the man.
The modernization process is another factor. The evolution of health care and modern medicine such antibiotics, drastically reduced to infant mortality rates and increased the average of life expectancy which together with the decline in fertility rates subsequent reflects a transition to chronic diseases and degenerative diseases as causes of death. The population growth has been and is very uneven depending on the countries, being much higher in the developing countries than in the developed countries.
In developed countries the living conditions that have impacted to reached phase IV are the highly industrialization, population enjoys a high standard of living made possible by the wealth and technology, thus technology today plays a key role in the level of development of a country. Also, the countries that have reached the phase IV are those where women are encouraged to gain a high level of education. Families can afford an additional salary and have better life style.
Lastly, in developed countries the majority of its population have access to health care and contraception is almost universal so that there is a control of birth at all levels. In contrast, developing countries have do not have these privileges. The level of poverty is high. Health care is not accessible to the majority of its population and there are high levels of malnutrition. Unfortunately, in most of the developing countries, women are not encourage and cannot afford to attend school and are not well educated or even in some countries are prohibited to attend school.
There are many initiatives and government proposals to help developing countries to become developed countries. In my research, I found two programs or initiatives that I could suggest to assist them in progress this goal. They are the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) and United Nations AIDS (UNAIDS). The UNFPA created in 1969 at the initiative of the General Assembly is the largest international source of funding to assist population in developing countries.
By request, it helps improve reproductive health and family planning services based on individual choice, and to formulate population policies that support efforts towards sustainable development. UNFPA is fully funded by voluntary. 70% is used in reproductive health, including family planning and sexual health, focus on improving reproductive health, adolescents, reducing maternal mortality. The rest of AID is used in population and development strategies to ensure a balance between population dynamics and development providing information, taking influence policy and building national capacity for population.
The other initiative that I support is the UNAIDS. This organization is the main advocate for global action on HIV and strengthens and supports an expanded response aimed at preventing transmission of HIV, providing care and support, reducing the vulnerability of individuals and communities to HIV. In order to provide a more effective global support to the fight against AIDS focused its action on AIDS focused its action on the following topics: Leadership and awareness for appropriate action against epidemic, strategic information to lead efforts against AIDS worldwide