Database Management System
Record- keeping is one of the functional areas in every organization regardless of its size. Effective management of these records is very important for the efficiency of the organization’s functionality. The concept of databases has been embraced in most organizations because of its numerous benefits. A database is a collection of information about an organization stored in a central location where different people can access concurrently. The shared ability is made possible by use of Database Management System (DBMS) which is a collection of related data and programs that allows quick and efficient retrieval of data stored in a database. Benefits of using a database Management System
With a DBMS, keeping the same type of information in different sections of an organization is greatly reduced. This is because the information can be accessed from a centralized place thus avoiding data duplication. A DBMS help curb the inconsistencies that occur when changes are made to data stored in one location and not applied in other locations where the same data is kept. Sharing of data in organization is one of the benefits of a DBMS, thus saving on storage space and allowing concurrent access of data. Because a DBMS has central control of data, it is possible to apply standards as required by an organization to data kept in a database. Another benefit which an organization gets by using a DBMS is the security of its data. Use of authorization checks, Access levels, audit trails are some of the security mechanisms employed by a DBMS. Lastly, accuracy of data kept in the database is maintained when using a DBMS. This accuracy is achieved because a DBMS ensures that the quality if information from the sysstem can be trusted (Seema 2007)
Drawbacks of flat file systems, such as Excel and Text files, for storing data Use of flat files for record keeping has its challenges in that data in the database are not related to each other therefore not leading to
redundancies. There is difficulty in locating a particular record in Flat files because they do not have unique keys that identify records in a database therefore making data retrieval a hard task. Multiple access in flat files is not supported unlike DBMS whereby concurrency is an outstanding feature. Security of data in flat files is not guaranteed since it’s not easy to enforce security measures in flat files. Data in flat files are not consistent as compared to a DBMS because there is no relationship between the data. Data stored in flat files lack integrity because of difficulties in completeness (Rajesh 2011) Requirements Elicitation Techniques
Requirements elicitation is a term that is used in requirements engineering that means gathering or extracting requirements from stakeholders like clients before a database is developed. For this exercise to be effective, some techniques are applied. One of the techniques used is interviewing the stakeholders. The analyst uses a list of guiding questions to elicit requirements from the user. This technique is applicable to single or group of people. Workshops can be conducted to act as a means of requirements elicitation technique. System analysts and the clients are able to discuss issues relating to the development of the database. Another technique is by reviewing the existing documentation on the systems and the stakeholders’ requirements. This gives insight to the analyst on how the old system is before the development of the new system (Hossenlop and Hass)
Hossenlopp, Rosemary, and Kathleen B. Hass. Unearthing Business Requirements: Elicitation Tools and Techniques. Management Concepts, 2007. Kedar, Seema. Database Management Systems. Technical Publications, 2007. Narang, Rajesh. Database management systems. PHI Learning Pvt. Ltd., 2011.