Cybercrime is also called computer crime. The use of computers as an instrument to further illegal ends, such as committing fraud, trafficking in child pornography and intellectual property, stealing identities, or violating privacy is cybercrime. Cybercrime, especially through the Internet, has grown in importance as the computer has become central to commerce, entertainment, and government.1 New technologies creates new criminal opportunities because of the early and widespread adoption of computers and the Internet, these days computer crime has been a growing issue even here in Nepal.
1.2 Statement of Problem
The development on information technology and cyberspace made the world as a small global village. People can get access right through the world from their home with internet. The trends of global terrorism are also changed by using such IT. Cyber crime as a “new weapon” becomes a potential threat in international peace. In particular, this paper is focused on cyber crime, its effects, challenges and impact of cyber crime on global security.
1.3Objectives of the Study:
a. To know how far cybercrimes are occurring in Nepal
b. Cyber crime in Nepal and the law into force
c. To learn about cyber security
1.4Importance of the Study
The research work is basically useful for all researchers and learners who are willing to study about cyber crime. It is equally beneficial to armed and police forces, the students of strategic studies, political science, history and international relationship. Cyber crime, at present is being a great challenge in each and every development sector. So, it will be useful for the planners and policy makers too.
1.5Limitation of the Study
It is because of time constrains; the research is limited in studying on cyber crime, its effects and cyber security only. However, broaden concept of cyber crime has been drawn in the study. Field visit was very costly in terms of time and resources, so only secondary sources (data) have been used to complete the study. It is specifically focused on identifying the causes, objectives, and impacts of cyber crime, the development in cyber space and information warfare, and potential threat in international peace. At last various measures for combating it and recommendations.
In this study, descriptive and analytical method has been chosen. Because of the time constrains, the data has been used in the research work are based on secondary sources. They were obtained through books, and World Wide Web sites.
HISTORY OF CYBER CRIME
The first recorded cyber crime took place in the year 1820. In 1820, Joseph-Marie Jacquard, a textile manufacturer in France, produced the loom. This device allowed the repetition of a series of steps in the weaving of special fabrics. This resulted in a fear amongst Jacquard’s employees that their traditional employment and livelihood were being threatened. They committed acts of sabotage to discourage Jacquard from further use of the new technology. This is the first recorded cyber crime. In Nepal, business houses, organizations started using electronic materials and computers where government was lacking in electronic rules and regulations. There is no exact date recorded for the first cyber crime in Nepal till date. But we can see many people being the victim of cybercrime. Especially in Nepal, many renowned companies are receiving emails from proxy mailing address demanding for money. Beside this, hacking websites of banks, newspaper and face book accounts, humiliating girls and uploading images in porn sites, sales of pirated CDS and DVDS are the most commonly practiced cybercrime in Nepal.
CATEGORIES OF CYBERCRIME
Basically we can categories cybercrime into two types:
(a) The computer as Target: using of computer to attack another computer like hacking, virus/ worms attacks.
(b) The computer as a weapon: using a computer to commit real world crime like cyber terrorism, credit card fraud and pornography, DoS attack and many more.2
EFFECTS OF CYBERCRIME
As the world goes mobile, cybercrime follows. Criminal takes advantage of technologies and internet in many ways to commit crime which is very hard to control by solo effort. Some of the effects of cybercrime that is frequently occurring in Nepal are as follows; (a) Hacking:This is a type of crime wherein a person’s computer is broken into so that his personal or sensitive information can be accessed. This is different from ethical hacking, which many organizations use to check their Internet security protection. In hacking, the criminal uses a variety of software to enter a person’s computer and the person may not be aware that his computer is being accessed from a remote location.
(b) Theft: This crime occurs when a person violates copyrights and downloads music, movies, games and software. There are even peer sharing websites which encourage software piracy and many of these websites are now being targeted by the FBI. Today, the justice system is addressing this cyber crime and there are laws that prevent people from illegal downloading.
(c) Cyber Stalking: This is a kind of online harassment wherein the victim is subjected to a barrage of online messages and emails. Typically, these stalkers know their victims and instead of resorting to offline stalking, they use the Internet to stalk. However, if they notice that cyber stalking is not having the desired effect, they begin offline stalking along with cyber stalking to make the victims’ lives more miserable.
(d) Identity Theft: This has become a major problem with people using the Internet for cash transactions and banking services. In this cyber crime, a criminal accesses data about a person’s bank account, credit cards, Social Security, debit card and other sensitive information to siphon money or to buy things online in the victim’s name. It can result in major financial losses for the victim and even spoil the victim’s credit history.
(e) Malicious Software: These are Internet-based software or programs that are used to disrupt a network. The software is used to gain access to a system to steal sensitive information or data or causing damage to software present in the system.
(f) Child soliciting and Abuse: This is also a type of cyber crime wherein criminals solicit minors via chat rooms for the purpose of child pornography. The FBI has been spending a lot of time monitoring chat rooms frequented by children with the hopes of reducing and preventing child abuse and soliciting.
CYBER SECURITY AND ITS ADVANTAGES
(b) Keep Software Up to Date: If the seller reduces patches for the software operating system your devices install them as soon as possible. Installing them will prevent attackers from being able to take advantages. Don’t choose options that will allow your computer to remember your passwords. (c) Disable remote connectivity: Some devices are equipped with wireless technologies like Bluetooth that can be used to connect to other devices.
You should disable these features when they are not in use.
5.2Advantages of Cyber Security:The advantages of cyber security are mentioned below: (a) The cyber security will defend us from critical attacks. (b) It will defend us from hacks and virus.
(c) Internet Security processes all the incoming and outgoing data on your computer. (d) Application of cyber security used in our PC needs update every week. (e) It helps us to browse the site, website.
CYBER LAW IN NEPAL
Nepal has moved a step further in the information and communication technology (ICT) as the government has promulgated Electronic Transaction Act-2063 and Regulations, legalizing all electronic transactions and digital signatures. 4 Cyber law or Electronic Transaction Act clearly defines the rights, duties and authorities of the subscribers, network service provider, etc. The act had provision of separate bodies, IT Tribunal and Appellate Tribunal. The both look into all cases related to computer crime and the cyber crime. The IT tribunal is headed by the District Court Judge and has 3 members. The main purpose of this act (law) is to legalize the electronic transactions and digital signatures for both private and public transactions, protecting the electronic documents from the unauthorized access and to control the illegal activities or the cyber crimes. This act has 12 sections and 79 clauses. Electronic Transaction Act 2006 is here to fore addressed in the capacity of cyber law. The Cyber law 2006 dictates the limitation for complaint within 35 days of first knowhow of crime and breaching of the cyber law. The punishment varies from Rs. 50000 to Rs. 300000 penalty and 6 months to 5 years imprisonment as the attempts to discourage the cyber crime.
CHALLENGES IN CYBER CRIME
Though there is cyber law in Nepal, but yet there are many challenges in investigating Cybercrime due to: a. Internet and the computers as the Scene
of Crime there are many types of computer crime that exist, as well as the legal and technical challenges that face law enforcement and prosecutors in their efforts to combat this crime. b. Investigator’s skills (not trained) to combat cyber terrorism. c. knowhow of cyber security
d. high-tech crimes and confusions
e. Low participation of tech groups and less co-operation of resource groups f. Imitation of traditional perspective for defining cyber crime. A challenging aspect of cybercrime is its nonlocal character: actions can occur in jurisdictions separated by vast distances. g. Creating a Safer Information Society by Improving the Security of Information Infrastructures.
Many people has become the victim of cybercrime especially girls, celebrities, politicians and many other renowned personalities. It’s a well known saying that “Prevention is always better than cure”, Therefore, it is always better to take certain precaution beforehand rather than regretting afterwards. Whosoever is accessing the net should take Safety and privacy activation on social networking site. Some of the safety measures are mentioned below: a. Stay informed, pay attention to news sources to learn about recent threats and websites that have been attacked. b. Be careful, to never enter private or financial data into websites that don’t show proof of security. c. Clean and clear your internet cache, lost fragments, orphaned registry keys, temporary files, deleted email messages, and other temporary files on your computer often. d. Google yourself and make sure there is nothing out there that gives out too many details about you. e. Never provide your credit card number as a proof
f. Report abuse, if you are stalked or harassed online, don’t respond to the attacker. Instead keep a record of the communications and report the abuse to the websites administrator.
There are appropriate investigative law enforcement agencies, District Police Offices of Police Headquarters or Local Police office, Metropolitan Crime Division who are working against cybercrime and the criminals. Cybercrime is indeed getting the recognition it deserves. However, it is not going to be restricted that easily. In fact, it is highly likely that cybercrime and its hackers will continue developing and upgrading to stay ahead of the law. So, to make us a safer we must need cyber security. Moreover, every individual most apply the possible way to stay alert.
FBI- Federal Bureau of Investigation
PC- Personal Computer
IT- Information Technology
DVD-Digital Versatile Disc / Digital Video Disc
ICT-Information and Communication Technology
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m. Kantipur Daily
n. Nagarik Dainik
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r. Moore, R. (2005) “Cyber crime: Investigating High-Technology Computer Crime,” Cleveland, Mississippi: Anderson Publishing.
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