The whole job of a teacher centers on the facilitation of learning for every child that comes into his/her care or class. The preparation to reach that stage when he/she is established enough in the rigors and demands of the teaching profession is obviously and acceptably lengthy and comprehensive. That is the reason also that teachers must take eventually a teacher’s licensure examination to ensure that those “manning” the classrooms are at a minimum knowledgeable of the weight, strain and toll on the professional in a world that he/she has entered.
Definitely it starts with a thorough understanding of the kind of audience or clientele that a vocation specializes. In teaching therefore, knowledge of the nature of the child (referring for example to pupils in the elementary grades) must take pre-eminence. When a teacher knows that a child has limits depending on his/her age, family or culture or diversity that is prevalent in many classrooms, then he/she is better prepared to any complications, conflicts or problems therein and observance of the code of ethics becomes naturally easy.
However that is only half of the job of a teacher and half of the work to be done in the world of education. In essence there are other important factors that come into play where good and effective education is the subject matter. The kind of material and amount of time that the child spends with, including the specific kinds of instructions – all of these are also taken into account (Smith & Vaux, 2003).
To elaborate these realities, the scientific world is torn as to what directions the academic world should be taking considering that allegations abound whether the present curriculum in schools continues to be effective. The resulting kind of students and future workers of our country that our academic institutions produce in the kind of educational slant our educators and legislators believed to be what our country in general, and parents in particular, need.
For instance, what has cropped up in the surveys and studies recently is the contention about the efficacies of home schooling versus both the public and private schools’ training. Certain groups have raised serious questions on the changes and heavy focus on what are termed as “developmentally appropriate” material and “affective learning. ” To be specific, there is the seeming concentration of both the government’s and private schools’ educators on “self-esteem learning,” “whole learning” versus the “emphasis on the phonics” (Lindsay, 2006).
“When it comes to forecasting what American schools will look like in the future, educators and analysts steeped in the history and current events of education in this country don’t agree on every point, “ (Lee, 2000) says a Post-Gazette Education writer. This appears to be realistically true implying that considering the goal of predicting and analyzing curriculum trends today and in the next ten years subjects every would-be prophet or visionary into a complex and tight spot; the direction and changes that the curriculum in this country’s educational system should be likely thrown into a more difficult and taxing job (Lee, 2000).
This author presents this paper on what the developments that had been observed in the educational continuum with implemented modifications and their efficacies as well as the movement that will hug the public and private thrusts in reaction to the success or failure of what people had been used to thus far. Pertinent information showing the decade or number of years that allows the legislation and application of relevant research to the formulation of laws that govern the way children and adolescents will be taught shall be considered in the following pages. This paper then attempts to explore the following statements of the problems:
o What Curricular changes will we see and why? o What and who will influence content? o Who will be involved in its development and design? o What part will students play in curriculum development in the next 10 years? o How will these changes impact student personally? The tug of war between what kind of emphasis and changes that should be implemented in the curriculum and those who will be in power to implement them shall be a permanent fixture a decade from now. However, there will sure be some changes just as many cultural changes or shifts are occurring or will still likely to occur in the immediate years to come.
Background and Overview America has become the world’s superpower for quite a long time since after the Depression Years. It is able to sustain its position then and now depending on anybody’s viewpoint. If the Religious Right, the Evangelicals or Fundamentalists, were to be asked why America is what it is today in the world’s affairs, they’d readily attribute it to the spiritual dimension: the favor of God is with this country since its pioneering days when the early Christians settled here from England. Among the pioneers are now popularly known as the Puritans (Kizer, 2000).
Who they were, how they lived, what their basic or fundamental beliefs were, and how much they played a part to what America or even the world has become, no one could possibly estimate to its closest description. All we know is the heritage which they passed on to this great country. They played a great role in establishing the first free schooling, first formal education, and first American college, Harvard in Cambridge, and the first to write books for children expressing the distinct difference in communicating with this age level (Kizer, 2000).
These were some of their contributions and they are no small feats if one has to consider their impact to civilization. Much can be said about the reformation that started in England which was successful in their day and the migration to America that further changed the landscape of what this country has since become after they came. After spirituality that they protected and communicated down their descendants and shaped others who came to their influence, the Puritans’ foremost contribution is the intellectual development and progress that marked America.
Religion was the fuel for this intellectual pursuit, and even scientific breakthroughs came about as a result of the Puritans’ emphasis in education. The resulting healthy economy, strong political convictions from the biblical emphasis, and consistent formal learning hallmarked the Puritans and perhaps no other group of people contributed much to the preservation of the American way of life even until today (Kizer, 2000). ~Basic Assumptions A. Understanding Nature and Nurture and the effects on the developing human individual: A case for learning and maturity in is application for the educational set-up.
The effect and influence of genes on human behavior correspond to one side of the nature/nurture debate. Advocates on the nature side stand on the argument that genes primarily shape the outcome specifically in such traits as a person’s temperament, intelligence and personality. Support towards the nurture part of the debate argue that all that are in the environment, with such influences as education, day-to-day events or encounters, and the way individuals are being reared, are all dominant or principal influences of these traits.
Generally, in this day and age, behavioral scientists do not take an either a solid nature or nurture stance. However, it has not diminished the controversy over which of heredity or environment has greater influence on behavior (Pinker, 2003, p. 2). The controversies will probably remain in the years to follow but the issue that the dichotomy must eventually end: nature and nurture will both be determinants of human characteristics like intelligence, personality and temperament; the social and political implications of this matter is further described and explained in detail in the discussion that follows.
The question of whether heredity or environment is more important in determining the course of human development has been debated over the centuries. For example, the rejection of the prevailing notion of the day that babies were miniature adults who arrived in the world fully equipped with abilities and knowledge and who simply had to grow in order for these inherited characteristics to appear (Pinker, 2003, p. 2). There is that idea/belief that the mind of a newborn infant is a “blank slate,” or a tabula rasa.
What gets written on this slate is what the baby experiences – what he sees, hears, tastes, smells, and feels. According to Locke, all knowledge comes to us through our senses. It is provided by experience, no knowledge or ideas are built-in (Pinker, 2003). The behaviourists’ standpoint, with the likes of BF Skinner, was that human nature is completely malleable: early training can turn a child into any kind of adult, regardless of his or her heredity. This is most exemplified in an individual’s activity. ~Theoretical Viewpoints on Motivation
The subject of human motivation is quite complicated for a number of reasons. Firstly, humans mature more slowly than any other organisms on this planet, and for this, the motivational tendencies are acquired more slowly too. Secondly, the individual is dependent on many of his fundamental satisfactions on other people; this is illustrated on his/her use of symbolic language to communicate these needs to others (Franken, 1994). Motivation is defined as the concept that represents the fundamental influence that drives behavior and providing its direction (Morris et al.
, 1999, p. 284). In organizational behavior the principles in the study of behavior, especially on motivational theories, are applied in the workplace. Such theories help explain what motivates people in their attitudes toward work, their employers and other aspects of employment in general. One major motivational model or theory more often used in organizations and industries is the theory by Abraham Maslow (Smith et al, 1982). More prominently called as the hierarchy of needs, this theory explains an individual’s needs on different levels.
On the theory, Maslow defines basic or fundamental needs as the individual’s biological needs like hunger, thirst and rest. Maslow believes that on this basic level lies the “evolution” of the other so-called “higher” needs. If the lower levels are not satisfied, the implications mean the individual cannot or will not move onto the higher levels (Morris et al. , 1999, p. 302; Marx 1976). Maslow’s theory became a phenomenal one especially in industry because of its humanistic desirability; they seemed significant to people. It helps clarify why some work incentives are not effective for some people and situations.
And managers in work settings can implement interventions in their workplaces based on their understanding of human behavior according to the hierarchy of needs (Berry, 2002, p. 240). Psychology recognizes different perspectives of motivation. One of these viewpoints pertains to the idea of “motivational inducements,” otherwise known as incentives. Incentives are referenced from either the vantage point of internal, or that of external motivation. An inducement coming from within the individual is called intrinsic or internal motivation. It is, according to Morris and Maisto, about the “. . .
desire to perform a behavior that originates within the individual. ” An inducement coming from outside the individual is called external or extrinsic motivation. It is the aspiration to do or achieve a goal in order to acquire a type of incentives or escape or steer clear of punishment (Morris and Maisto, 1999, p. 316). Children are often induced by the presence of external incentives to perform expected tasks or avoid incurring punishment. For motivation experts, however, a person developing the internal type of motivation will reap more lasting and beneficial effects compared with external motivation (1999).
To induce a child to do what the parents ask for by way of rewards or threats are at times less constructive or even detrimental to the overall performance of the person or child. Essentially, the role of motivation in a person’s life is crucial to the understanding of human activities. Motivation is never static because in life, there always presents a dynamic and changing pattern of needs. Internal and external motivation provides in brief, an astute way of explaining the “why’s” of people’s behaviors. ~Synthesis
Understanding nature and nurture in the context of understanding the trends that curriculum will be taking reasonably places the responsibilities upon forecasters to fully take account of the various aspects or factors from the very start of the evaluation process in determining whether the material indeed can make their impact and up to what extent. Moreover, the weight of the effects of motivating children or students always depend on sufficient know-how of the dynamics of learning and the individuality that is inherently understood as a human factor and characteristic.