The report included a deterioration of performance in reading, language and arithmetic due to poor instructional methods, large class sizes, and inadequate supervision Presidential Commission to Survey Philippine Education (PCSPE) 1. Analyze performance of the educational system and its relevance to national developmental goals 2. Ascertain the efficiency of the system
3. Identify areas which need more detailed investigation.
4. The report included findings on :
a. Mismatch between educational services and manpower requirements b. Mismatch between education priorities and the national development priorities c. Inequitable distribution of educational facilities and resources across the regions d. Lack of systematic planning and evaluation
SURVEY OF OUTCOMES OF ELEM EDUCATION (SOUTELE)
1. Battery of achievement tests designed to measure the outcomes of elementary education 2. General mental ability test of non-verbal type designed to measure association 3. Student’s attitude inventory aimed to measure affective objectives 4. Questionnaires in order to establish the profiles of pupils, teachers, school heads, etc. 5. The study revealed deficiencies of elementary education in terms of inputs (resources), processes (curriculum and instruction), and outputs (students’ achievement). These are affected by socio economic, school types, quality of teaching. The Household and School Matching Survey (HSMS)
1. The survey hypothesized that learning is predicated on the antecedent academic, social, physiological variables. 2. The findings of the investigation showed that home-related and community related variables have greater influences on learning than school related factors such as cost per pupil and numbers of textbooks per students. The Congressional Commission on Education Study (EDCOM)
1. Enhancing the internal capability of the system to satisfactorily implement the constitutional provisions on education 2. Providing the system with necessary financial and other infrastructure support 3. Strengthening the system’s linkages with all sectors concerned in human resource development 4. Assisting the system to achieve its sectoral goals and targets through strategies that are consistent with the nation’s development goals. The National Evaluation and Impact Study of PRODED
1. Teacher factor is crucial in the success of the teaching-learning process 2. There is a need to improve the pre-service and in-service training of teachers that should include the development of skills in classroom management, teacher-pupil interaction, and the use of instructional aids, etc. Monitoring and Evaluation of RBEC
1. Defines what levels of learning students of schools and divisions meet
at various stages of the basic education cycle based on the national curriculum. 2. Setting of minimum national standards for capabilities, structures, processes and output based on a template for school improvement processes from planning to implementation to monitoring and evaluation 3. Nationally standardized student assessment, outcomes measurement and reporting of basic school statistics Presidential Commission on Educational Reform (PCER)
1. Created through E.O. in 1988 to define a budget feasible program of reform, and identify executive priority policy recommendations and items for a legislative agenda on education. 2. Comprised of multi sectoral group
3. Proposed the establishment of National Education Evaluation and Testing System (NEETS) that assumes responsibility for educational assessment of all levels, including technical and skills development
CURRENT TRENDS AND ISSUES
1. Article 14, sect 7 of 1987 constitution – “for the purposes of communication and instruction, the official languages of the Philippines are Filipino and until otherwise provided by law, English.” 2. DECS Order 52, s. 1987 – the policy of bilingual education aims to make every Filipino competent in both Filipino and English at the national level 3. DECS defines bilingual as “separate use of Filipino and English as media of instruction in specific subjects.” Early Childhood Care and Development (ECCD)
1. Art 15, Sec 2, 1987 Phil. Cons. – recognizes the “right of children to assistance, including proper care and nutrition, and special protection from all forms of neglect, abuse, cruelty, exploitation and other conditions prejudicial to their development.” 2. UN Convention on the Rights of Child
3. Education for All (EFA) agenda of DECS, 1990 envisioned 90% in 2000 of early childhood care and development either home-based services or kindergarten / nursery classes Other issues
1. Access to pre-school education
2. Private Pre-school education
3. Global education
4. Environmental education
The K to 12 Program
The K to 12 Program covers kindergarten and 12 years of basic education (six years of primary education, four years of junior high school, and two years of senior high school [SHS]) to provide sufficient time for mastery of concepts and skills, develop lifelong learners, and prepare graduates for tertiary education, middle-level skills development, employment, and entrepreneurship. The adoption of the program is in response to the need to improve the competitiveness of our country’s graduates as the ten-year basic education cycle is seen as inadequate for work and higher education. In fact, overseas Filipino workers are not automatically recognized as professional in other countries that view the ten-year education program as insufficient. The Philippines is the only country in Asia and is one of only three countries in the world with a ten-year basic education cycle.
1. Universal Kindergarten Education.
2. Mother Tongue-Based Multilingual Education.
3. Core Academic Areas
TYPES OF CURRICULUM (PHILIPPINE SETTING)
Overt, explicit, or written curriculum
Is simply that which is written as part of formal instruction of schooling experiences? It may refer to a curriculum document, texts, films, and supportive teaching materials that are overtly chosen to support the intentional instructional agenda of a school. Thus, the overt curriculum is usually confined to those written understandings and directions formally designated and reviewed by administrators, curriculum directors and teachers, often collectively.
As defined by Cortes (1981). Cortes defines this curriculum as: the massive, ongoing, informal curriculum of family, peer groups, neighborhoods, churches organizations, occupations, mass, media and other socializing forces that “educate” all of us throughout our lives. The hidden or covert curriculum
That which is implied by the very structure and nature of schools, much of what revolves around daily or established routines. Longstreet and Shane (1993) offer a commonly accepted definition for this term. The “hidden curriculum,” which refers to the kinds of learning’s children derives from the very nature and organizational design of the public school, as well as from the behaviors and attitudes of teachers and administrators.
Examples of the hidden curriculum might include the messages and lessons derived from the mere organization of schools — the emphasis on: sequential room arrangements; the cellular, timed segments of formal instruction; an annual schedule that is still arranged to accommodate an agrarian age; disciplined messages where concentration equates to student behaviors were they are sitting up straight and are continually quiet; students getting in and standing in line silently; students quietly raising their hands to be called on; the endless competition for grades, and so on. The hidden curriculum may include both positive or negative messages, depending on the models provided and the perspectives of the learner or the observer.
The null curriculum
Those lessons learned through searching the Internet for information, or through using e-forms of communication. (Wilson, 2004) From Eisner’s perspective the null curriculum is simply that which is not taught in schools. Somehow, somewhere, some people are empowered to make conscious decisions as to what is to be included and what is to be excluded from the overt (written)
From Eisner’s perspective the null curriculum is simply that which is not taught in schools. Somehow, somewhere, some people are empowered to make conscious decisions as to what is to be included and what is to be excluded from the overt (written curriculum. Since it is physically impossible to teach everything in schools, many topics and subject areas must be intentionally excluded from the written curriculum. But Eisner’s position on the “null curriculum” is that when certain subjects or topics are left out of the overt curriculum, school personnel are sending messages to students that certain content and processes are not important enough to study. Unfortunately, without some level of awareness that there is also a well-defined implicit agenda in schools, school personnel send this same type of message via the hidden curriculum. Phantom curriculum
The messages prevalent in and through exposure to any type of media. These components and messages play a major part in the enculturation of students into the predominant meta-culture, or in acculturating students into narrower or generational subcultures. Concomitant curriculum
What is taught, or emphasized at home, or those experiences that are part of a family’s experiences, or related experiences sanctioned by the family. (This type of curriculum may be received at church, in the context of religious expression, lessons on values, ethics or morals, molded behaviors, or social experiences based on the family’s preferences.) Rhetorical curriculum
Elements from the rhetorical curriculum are comprised from ideas offered by policymakers, school officials, administrators, or politicians. This curriculum may also come from those professionals involved in concept formation and content changes; or from those educational initiatives resulting from decisions based on national and state reports, public speeches, or from texts critiquing outdated educational practices. The rhetorical curriculum may also come from the publicized works offering updates in pedagogical knowledge. Curriculum-in-use
The formal curriculum (written or overt) comprises those things in textbooks, and content and concepts in the district curriculum guides. However, those “formal” elements are frequently not taught. The curriculum-in-use is the actual curriculum that is delivered and presented by each teacher.
Those things that students actually take out of classroom; those concepts and content that are truly learned and remembered. The internal curriculum Processes, content, knowledge combined with the experiences and realities of the learner to create new knowledge. While educators should be aware of this curriculum, they have little control over the internal curriculum since it is unique to each student. The electronic curriculum
Those lessons learned through searching the Internet for information, or through using e-forms of communication. (Wilson, 2004) This type of curriculum may be either formal or informal, and inherent lessons may be overt or covert, good or bad, correct or incorrect depending on ones’ views. Students who use the Internet on a regular basis, both for recreational purposes (as in blogs, chatrooms, listserves, through instant messenger on-line conversations, or through personal e-mails) and for research and information, are bombarded with all types of media and messages. Much of this information may be factually correct, informative, or even entertaining or inspirational, but other information may be very incorrect, dated, passive, biased, perverse, or even manipulative.
The implications for educational practices are that part of the overt curriculum needs to include lessons on how to be wise consumers of information, how to critically appraise the accuracy and correctness of e-information, as well as the reliability of electronic sources. Also, students need to learn how to be artfully discerning about the usefulness and appropriateness of certain types of information. And, like other forms of social interaction, students need to know that there are inherent lessons to be learned about appropriate and acceptable “netiquette” and online behavior, to include the differences between “fair usage” and plagiarism.