China and the United States have different cultural backgrounds, different values and national conditions, it determines the Sino-US education idea, education mode and method is put in the difference with bigger.
China’s basic education and basic education in the United States were compared, the majority of people believe that education is the foundation of China, the basic education,” learn more understanding and less”; American education is to cultivate innovation ability education, learning more than studying””. What is the” science” or” Enlightenment”? In twentieth Century, the famous British mathematician, philosopher, educator Whitehead once said:” education is a complicated problem … …
On this issue there is only a little I can be sure, that is not generally applicable and simple way.” Each student in the school ‘s development, it is not only the educational mode, education content, education system and method to decide, because in the growth of the students, society, family, school education and individual four together play. Therefore, we can not only with the part of the students development, to assert that the entire education system rationality, so it is unreasonable.
Two the difference of basic education between China and America
Basic education between China and America merits, different people hold no point of view. For example, if the comparison is the mathematical curriculum, China ‘s basic education must exceed the United States; but if the comparison of students’ practical ability especially the practice ability and innovation ability, the American basic education is certainly more than chinese.
Elementary education between America and why there is this discrepancy?
First, the two countries have very different educational tradition, Chinese basic education pay attention to the accumulation of knowledge and indoctrination, pay attention to the cultivation of students’ knowledge of their master, pay attention to the cultivation of students the same thinking. While the United States is to pay attention to the training of students to use the knowledge to solve the actual problem ability, pay attention to the cultivation of the students’ knowledge of development and innovation, pay attention to the cultivation of students’ critical thinking and divergent thinking.
We can see, China Education focused on knowledge static acceptance, and the United States of America education focuses on knowledge of the dynamic control; China is a mode of education, while the United States is a kind of elite education. As the Nobel winner professor Chen Ning Yang said, China and the United States educational philosophy is quite different, the United States of America education philosophy on the former 30%-40% student is good, because they do not need to follow the prescribed order of learning, can jump in learning, the students through training can quickly achieve success. While Chinese education philosophy on 30%-40% student is good, because these students follow the prescribed order, has a solid foundation of the process, have become the opportunity.
Secondly, different country on the foundation stage of Education Foundation has different understanding. Take mathematics as an example, the educational circles of China have historically considered, the basic concept and the basic operation is the foundation of mathematics in middle school, so we need to remember a lot of formulas and theorems. While the United States that know where to find these theorems and formulas are more important, they think that can be found in these formulas and theorems, there is no need to worry effort to memory, the brain can be saved to think about other things, such as the theorem has applications? If I need to learn? Wait.
China’s education is the basis of that, the brain in a computer independent premise, the reserve knowledge as much as possible, as quickly as possible to extract knowledge, so Chinese students of the brain in these two aspects are fully trained ( on the end game wood, 2002). American education is the basis of that, the brain to make full use of the computer under the premise of development, give up those belonging to the computer work area required capacity, only those belonging to the computer cannot work areas required capacity ( on the end game wood, 2002).
Therefore, when by virtue of classroom achievement scholarship, American students often than Chinese students, but can make full use of information tools, in specific practice areas, do some research work, Chinese students often than American students. Hence, in the development of brain underlying function, Chinese education better, but in the use of a variety of information tools to solve problems and make innovation, the United States educational advantage is self-evident.
Moreover, from the value tropism, the American basic education from the perspective of individualism, individual supreme is the traditional value pursuit, American basic education of cultivating the students’ personality and creativity. Basic education in China is from social interests, collectivism and patriotism values is its tradition of the pursuit of value, which determines that China’s basic education carried by the individual ability and the training of creative ability are also and values related to. This and the American individualism education a fundamental distinction.
For example, the concrete teaching activity, the United States to encourage students to have their own ideas, teachers in the teaching process, pay attention to the students’ independent personalized thinking habits, pay attention to the students’ divergent thinking and critical thinking of the culture, politics, religion, history and many other aspects of the many problems teachers are prohibited to provide the only correct the answer, encourage a variety of different views exist, against the teacher instead of students thinking.
China education focusing on the same thinking, when the examination, assessment focus is often the student’s knowledge, objective test almost flooded in the sciences, inspects the student to answer whether the test standard and consistent answers, the side guide students and teachers to set the only answer to be consistent, so the result is the most students rely on Teachers’ thinking and teaching. This and the United States banned from providing the only answer is quite different.
The United States of America education emphasizes individual, Chinese education emphasizes respect love others. The ancients cloud, respect for nature love herself, not nurture. So we think, Chinese basic education relative to the United States of America ‘s individualistic education, superior and more. Chinese basic education should be guaranteed in the standard of society under the premise of the pursuit of individual students and innovation ability the development of maximization.
Finally, China ‘s basic education attaches importance to the sound of the United States, and a plurality of Chinese education; education pay attention to the longitudinal depth, while the United States Education attention span; the United States of America education pay attention to cultivate students’ self-confidence and self-reliance spirit, Chinese education pay attention to cultivate students’ strict and rigorous academic attitude.
The United States of America corresponding, a loose, free atmosphere, can fully take care of every student interest and the hobby; while the Chinese basic education is dull. Basic education in China is characterized by fast speed, high degree of difficulty, knowledge of many points, the high degree of abstraction, often the United States a week about the content of China, ten minutes can be finished, and students have the pressure of the college entrance examination, relative to foreign countries, students by pressure, quoting professor Chen Ning Yang ‘s words Chinese education narrow stiff.
From the above we can see, China, in the education idea, education mode and method, there is a great difference. China ‘s education is more a model of education; and the United States of America focuses on emphasizing the innovation spirit, individualism, is a kind of elite education. In essence, focusing on innovation or focus on the foundation is an American basic education and basic education in China the fundamental difference.
As the Nobel winner professor Chen Ning Yang said, China and the United States of America Education Foundation, cannot tell which one is good, which one is not good, be it differs from man to man. In the teaching process, for Chinese students, they should have more innovation, for American students, should let them lay a good foundation, it can compensate for each other, is the most appropriate.
American education is to the East, began to seize a base. In 2001 June, the United States President Bush proposed an education reform bill, $24000000000 in primary and secondary schools to strengthen the education investment and management, requires that all schools must hold the reading test ( approximate Chinese examination ) and math exam, students must pass the examination before graduation, only students meet the eligibility requirements, the school to receive federal extra government funding. If 3 consecutive unqualified, principals and teachers to leave. The bill got through to absolute advantage.
Comparison of reference only, can only draw lessons from, in order to improve. The United States has acted, we should also take action. As can be seen, the United States of America ‘s elementary education reform focuses on the basis of innovation in bridge foundation. China ‘s basic education traditionally focus too much on the cultivation of students’ Collectivism, patriotism and common thinking, without adequate attention to the cultivation of students’ personality and creativity, so the education of our country should be based on the basis of the increase in innovation.
( a ) curriculum and course requirements
We should give full consideration to the child and adolescent students’ physical, mental and psychological development stage, progressive. Different students should have different learning tasks, can not be one-sided pursuit of knowledge and too many courses, to know that knowledge is endless, the source of knowledge is very rich, can’t put the eye only to lock in the textbook, should give students leave enough space for development, to those who have expertise students with adequate development of individualized freedom, as they provide sufficient superior conditions and the necessary learning guidance, so that more of Qian Zhongshu’s birth.
The United States is not the national curriculum standards, but states, counties or districts can compile curriculum standard. From look on the whole, the United States of America curriculum is quite flexible, mainly including compulsory courses and elective classes two categories. Required courses for credit is more, content is wide but not deep, emphasize the students’ practical ability, thinking ability and awareness of the problem, to solve the question ability. Elective course of many types, are based mainly on students, employment and social life of the actual need, students according to their own interest in free to choose, to obtain the required credits.
So we think, our country in the setting of curriculum time completely should learn from the American experience, emphasize the foundation of life, pay attention to life experience, guide multivariate development, more from the needs of society and students survival needs to consider, setting conforms to our country national curriculum standard.
( two) teaching material
Chinese teaching material relative to the United States, is boring. Take the United States of” Literature”, the contents of the article are novels, short stories, essays and other kinds of themes, but, each subject by a number of different age, different types of styles of different articles. The article, with background reports, authors and other related content. In addition, each lesson has special column has associated the literature Web site, thereby facilitating students’ extracurricular reading. Many foreign genre, content is wide, it is domestic Chinese textbook can match.
Therefore, we can draw lessons from the United States of America teaching material on knowledge widen, the contempt of the depth of knowledge of excessive mining; attach importance to the students’ practice ability, practical ability training, the contempt of the knowledge of the rote learning; pay attention to students’ learning autonomy, independence and creativity cultivation, despise the same thinking too much training, so as to our teaching materials, arrangement of reform.
At the same time, the United States of America textbook illustrations, vivid image, in our textbook layout can also absorb it to this experience.
( three) the classroom teaching
Our classroom teaching, classroom capacity, demand is high, the classroom atmosphere more serious. Although this gives students lay a solid system foundation, but also brought inactive classroom, teacher, student thinking less defects, typical teacher-centered teaching mode, and the United States of America free, relaxed classroom atmosphere, students can walk freely during the class, free discussion, to express own viewpoint, is a typical student centered teaching mode.
Therefore, we can draw lessons from the United States of America ‘s absorption of education mode, form Chinese characteristic education pattern, which is put forward by Professor He Kekang dominated — subject education mode, to improve the traditional classroom teaching, improve the students’ enthusiasm and initiative, to cultivate the students’ creative thinking and divergent thinking. The specific measures are as follows:
First of all, optimize the teaching goals. According to the needs of social development, developed to meet the needs of social development, meet the future employment needs of specific teaching objectives, and formulate the corresponding evaluation scheme, to ensure the teaching objectives of the implementation.
Secondly, adjust the structure of classroom. Outstanding students as the main body, autonomous learning, free development idea, overcome students ‘” hello” eat teaching phenomenon.
Then, strengthen teaching methods. To follow through induction, guide correctly, improve students’ questions, the practical ability to solve problems, teachers should change their roles from the traditional preaching, impart knowledge and solve doubts are transformed into organizer, promoter, by management as a guide, the relationship between teachers and students should be converted to partners. At the same time, the teacher in the teaching process, pay attention to the use of suitable for the courses of various teaching mode of application, such as inquiry-based learning,
Finally, to create a good teaching environment. To establish harmonious relationship between teachers and students, to the students to create a good, harmonious, free study atmosphere. To encourage the learning and the use of modern information technology, the research and production of computer auxiliary teaching courseware, improving the quality of teaching, at the same time, make full use of the school to provide the digital learning environment, in the teaching process can realize the information technology and curriculum integration.
( four) other aspects
In strengthening the above aspects at the same time, but also to improve the treatment of teachers, strengthening the teachers team construction; increase the investment in education, improve school conditions; at the same time regular teacher training, improve the quality of teaching.
Through the above on the United States and China basic education after comparing, we can see, actually the most ideal education is the two kind of education modes advantages of integration, this will have solid foundation and innovation. But as a result of these two kinds of educational models are based on different cultural traditions and social background, so together with considerable difficulty.
China’s basic education and higher education, there exist some problems and shortcomings, the United States of America education it has many advantages and advanced education in China, worth learning. But this does not mean that the Chinese education reform must complete to American education as an example, the overall absorption, to know the Sino-US education system is rooted in the cultural tradition, historical background and value orientation, whoever can not fully absorb each other’s essence.
To sum up, we can see, different education reflects the different social and cultural connotation of the United States now, suitable teaching methods may not be entirely suitable for the Chinese education. Therefore, China ‘s education must be based on suitable for China’s national conditions based on the, it reflects the Chinese social and cultural connotation. So, how to explore with Chinese characteristics, in line with China’s national education method and the education system, is our future education