The speaker was addressing a native Indians, most likely her mother. The speaker was trying to trace her culture and trying to differentiate it from her physical and characteristic behavior. In this address the speaker is trying to deny her native identity as American Indian and specifying that it is Native American. It appears the mother was American but the father was Indian. (Burn 741) The poem has the humor in the of living in identity denial yet when the speaker seem to be very much aware of the culture of her identity such as archery practice, stoic face and not drinking a lot.
This forms the first theme of this poem of cultural identity denial even though there are physical and behavioral attributes that are associated with the Indian native culture. The speaker consider the Indian rugs very cheap as compared to the American rugs, thus the speaker does not want to be identified with them . (Burn 741) The second humor that is in this poem is the manner in which the speaker is addressing the mother, especially when referring to the father. The speaker is referring to the father as an Indian lover to the mother.
The speaker makes it more humorous by perceiving and elaborating how tight the father and the mother were before the speaker was born. This is the second serious theme in the poem. (Burn 741- 742) There are certain phrases that are repeated through out the poem with respective effect. The ‘Yea Uh-huh’ phrase is repeated in the phrase as a scone and laugh at the issues in the theme such as culture and identity. It is used by the speaker to make humorous asserting and make a sense of disapproval to the listener. The ‘No’ phrase has also been used at the beginning of the phrase to vehemently deny the Indian identity and culture in the poem.
The ‘Oh’ phrase has been used in the middle of the poem to pour scone on the relationship that existed between the parents. Other commonly repeated phrases are the ‘I don’t and I didn’t’. These are use for the function of reinforcement and utter dissociation. .(Burn 741-742) Cultural Assumptions and assessment for understanding of Cofer’s Perspective The tone of this poem is a gamble, with a prayerful wish, to some extent very desperate full of identity hope. It is a gamble as the identity of God is put of debate by the Latin women.
There is a prayerful wish as these women are religiously attending the church prayer sessions. Finally the desperate tone is seen at the end when they are not sure if God is or can be bilingual. (Cofer 780). Cofer relates the issues of race in the reference of God as being of Anglo identity with a Jewish heritage even though they pray in Spanish. Therefore the races hare are Spanish, English and Jews The issues of class are related to in the reference of ‘the great white father’ as well as the church environment which as marble that signify effluence.
There is debate about the identity of God. The issues of women run all through the poem from the Latin women who pray to the end of the poem where they pray to their dedicated saints such as Margarita, Josephina, Maria and Isabel. (Cofer 780). Cultural Assumptions and assessment for understanding of Hughes’ Perspective I am a student who does not see myself from the color perspective but from the opportunities to be what I am and can be in future. I appreciate other irrespective of their colors. I do not disregard others capabilities along color lines.
I am aware that life is a learning experience that will give everybody a chance to live their dreams with disregard to colors. These are the aspects that are covered by the speaker. (Hughes 935- 936). The writer complication is the assignment that was given about who they are as blacks yet the tutor is white. This assignment in itself is judgmental hence the complication on the writers side. The writing assignment is fulfilled when the writer goes to an isolated place at the institution and describes their identity on personal and in relations to others in the society.
The righter specifies that it is not possible to dissociate others because of their colors. (Hughes 935- 936). The speaker happens to be the only black student in their class, perhaps the oldest at twenty two years and feels discriminated for the color identity. The speaker also describes the way to the institution as mostly affluent and inhabited with whites. The speaker’s response to the question of whether the white paper will be colored when writing is negative. (Hughes 935- 936). The tone of line 27- 40 is one of defiance. The speaker wants to be considered and an American, just like the others.
The speaker is also defying the past treatment of dissociation from the rest of the society. The tone is also one of collectivisms when the speaker wants to be considered as an American. (Hughes 935- 936). The instructor will have a whole new perception about the identity discrimination that exits in the society at the moment. The Instructor will be touched and filled with guilt about the past occurrences of the have happened at the learning institution. The instructor will also commend the writer bravery and resolve and will most likely grade it as excellent.
(Hughes 935- 936). Cultural Assumptions and assessment for understanding of Byatt’s Perspective Daphne is a very sympathetic character. She never goes to the city Mall to shop and does not know so much of the place. The Husband Dollo always leaves her home and feels she is much more comfortable with the domestic chores that with the urban shopping Mall rendezvous. She is also very unaware of the risk of the city Mall security and get all her essential property such as passport stolen when she leave them lying carelessly at the Mall.
( Byatt 502-504). She gets into trouble when she cannot pay for the heavy baggage of shopping at the end of the tour and get more worked up and desperately arrested. All the other ladies did not go round the Mall with her hence she looses directions throughout the session . She is unable to prove her identity and will most likely be identified as a shop lifter unless her husband comes for her. ( Byatt 502-504). The antagonism arises between Daphne and the policeman when she is found lost in the perimeter. She has not been able to pay for the product.
She claims her property has been stolen including her passport which is her first step of identification. On arrest, she resists and believes she is not a criminal and will wait for her husband to come out with proof. But this is not resolved as the policeman is impatient there is nobody coming to her rescue. Eventually she must have given in to the arrest. ( Byatt 502-504). Cultural Assumptions and assessment for understanding of Divakaruni’s Perspective The practice of the pre-arranged marriages has long roots in the Indian culture.
I thin it should be left upon the lady to decide who to marry, when to marry, how many children to have and after what duration. (Divakaruni, 214- 215). Sumita initially cries of it as she does not have a chance to choose her groom. She also is not for the idea of going to America as she finds the culture quite conflicting with her current beliefs. However Divakaruni explores Sumita’s new life experience from the cloth point of view. As soon as Sumita is married, she gets a whole new experience that ranges from how women in America dress, kiss in public and socialize in the community.
This is quite a shift from the normal Indian culture including drinking. (Divakaruni, 214- 219) The Author weaves into the first section to show that everything is in order according to the Indian culture of pre-arranged marriages. The reader will initially see no signs that there are other controversial themes such as the pre-arranged marriages and the roles of the parents on such occasions. In this fist section, the author dwell on the traditional Indian clothes exposition especially the ones worn by the brides in the wedding day. (Divakaruni, 214- 215)
Somesh was initially characterized as well able man who is kind and decent and a provider. Later Somesh turn out to be a typical American with drinking and dressing practices that are not well known by the parents. Somesh was also considered a caring man by the parents. He was a very good singer. (Divakaruni, 214- 215) Works Cited: Byatt. “Baglady” 1998. p. 502 – 504. Burns, Diane. “Sure, You Can Ask Me a Personal Question. ” 1981, p. 741-2 Cofer, Judith Ortiz. “Latin Women Pray. ” 1981, p. 780. Hughes, Langston, “Dinner Guest: Me. ” 1965. p. 898, 935. Divakaruni, Chitra Banerjee. “ Clothes” 1990, p. 214