We will discuss in our assignment the different cultural & traditional cuisines of top five countries which influenced the food now being eaten. Then later in second phase of assignment we will discuss the traditional food preparation and dinning patterns of these five countries. SPAIN: Spanish cuisines are dominated by fresh produce, light seasoning of seafood from the Atlantic Ocean, Mediterranean Sea, and fresh water mountain streams. For the purpose of culinary, we divided Spain into seven regions: Canary Islands, North Coast, North Interior, Central Plains, Northeast, Southeast Coast, & South.
The North Coast is cool, wet & lush. It is known for its famous Basque culinary traditions, cuisine here is highly valued. Basque cooking techniques includes slow simmering in olive oil and subtle red & green sauces. Fish dishes flourish with the northernmost region, and famous for its assorted and finer sea foods. Huge variety of herbs used with lamb and veal. The most popular cuisines are fish and meat pie. North interior is popular for local trout. White asparagus, baby artichokes, peas, potatoes, beans, wheat and sweet pepper are grown along with rivers.
This region is particularly famous for its simple cooking techniques and popular dishes are bread sauteed with meats, eggs & vegetables. Central plains are famous for fresh meat, beans and sausage. Saffron and cheese is commonly used in their food. Catalonia is famous for its unique combinations of food like squid with pork, rabbit with raisins. Romesco sauce and sweet seasonings are used to flavor savory dishes. Spanish Levant or Southeast Coast is famous for its huge groves of citrus fruit, grapevine yards and vegetable farms. This region is popular for its well known seafood dish. “Paella”.
MOROCCO: Moroccan cuisine is the culinary star of its region North Africa. As it is at the cross roads of many civilizations, It is blended with Arab, Berber, Moorish, French, Middle Eastern, African, Iberian & Jewish influences. Moroccan cuisines are rich with fruits, fresh or dried like apricots, dates, figs and raisins. Moroccan chicken and pigeon dishes are flavored specially by lemon preserved in a salt-lemon juice mixture. Nuts are also used in Moroccan dishes commonly like in pine nuts, pistachios and almonds. Moroccan sweets are famous for its rich flavors of fruits, cinnamons and almonds.
Spices are used extensively in this particular cuisine. Since thousands of years, Moroccan cuisines flavors are richly flavored by Saffron from Taliounie, olives and mint from Meknes, lemons and oranges from Fes. Spices commonly used are karfa (cinnamon), kharkoum (turmeric), skingbir (ginger), libraz (pepper), kamoun (cumin), Pakistan: Pakistan has been rich in all of its tradition and cuisines. It is not much different from the Indian, Iran and Afghanistan cuisine. Most of the herbs, spices are used in both cuisines are same. Pork is banned in Pakistan as it is not a halal meat. Most of the drinks are non alcoholic.
There is a huge variety of Pakistani cuisine. It includes Mughlai, Sindhi, Punjabi, Balochi, North Western cuisine. Pakistan cuisine is one of the most traditional, culturally oriented, and diverse cuisines in the world. Meat is a major diet component in Pakistani cuisine. Moreover, vegetables, pulses and beans are also important. Wheat and rice is a necessary item of food at any time. The spices used in the cuisine range from mild, hot, spicy, and very spicy. Most of the cuisines are spicy. The meat dishes are first marinated in yogurt and spices for few hours and then cook on slow flame.
These dishes are very popular in Pakistan. The famous dishes of Pakistani cuisines are Briyani, Korma, Kabab, Tikka, Pulao, Behari Kabab, Murgh Chana, Tandori fish & Jehanga. & a huge variety of deserets are Kher, Sherkhurma, and Rabari etc. Traditionally, these dishes are served with special types of breads known as Chapattis or Paratha, or with brown rice. The sweets of Pakistan are famous for their huge variety. Most of the sweets are made of milk, rice, variety of nuts and flour with Banasmati Ghee. The traditional drinks of Pakistan are Lasse, Tea, Kashmeeri Chai, and Doodh Pati. AUSTRALIA:
The infinite variety of foods and cuisines of Australia reflects the variation of its land and provides rich cultural cuisines. In South, lamb, scallops and lobster are used in all their dishes. Fruits like citrus, grapes, melons, tomatoes and stone fruits along with apples and cherries are grown excessively in Australia. Australia cookery is famous for Lamb Roast, Lamingtons. Steak and Kidney Pies. Pavlova, Soldier’s cake and Anzac Biscuits are again famous for great afternoon teas with scones made up of Lamington and Pumpkin. Another famous food of Australia is Damper, traditional bread made without yeast.
Australian cuisines are also known well for its variety of tastes in sweets. A chocolate coated cake dust with desiccated coconut served with whipped cream is another delight ful food served in the country and it is highly popular. Indigenous food is very popular in the country. Calamari seasoned with lemon myrtle tossed with local seafood like scallops, prawns are very famous and highly demanded dish in Australia. Other famous dishes are Kangaroo fillet with Mountain Pepper, springs smoked Salmon, Yabbies Chowder, Yabbies Stir fry with Asian vegetables.
Australian cuisines are full of flavors with simple and mouthwatering taste and a variety of different combinations of ingredients. They season food very lightly with salt and black pepper and use little oil for cooking. The cuisine is full of variety ranging from fresh seafood till beef, mutton or chicken, use of fruits and vegetables till eggs of different varieties. The base of the Australian cuisine is simple, fresh yet with exquisite flavors. JAPAN: Japanese cuisine is famous all over the world for its simplest yet incredible taste. The culture of Japan changed drastically so as its cuisine.
Modern Japanese cuisine has influence of traditional cuisine of Japan and other civilizations of the world. The staple food used in their cooking is rice, fish, vegetables, & noodles. These food items are found almost in every meal at the time of dinner. Though many cultures cuisines have emerged in Japanese cuisine yet the basic and most of the Japanese cuisine is still having flair of their own tradition. Rice is a staple produce in Japan in many varieties and is highly demand in food. Noodles are also widely used in Japanese cuisine as a replacement of rice and sometimes as an additional meal.
These food items are served with fish and vegetables. Japanese are fond of fish and other seafood is highly popular in Japan. Apart from them most of the food is boiled and seasoned well with herbs and spicy with not over strong flavors. Food is simple and delicious. The rice served is also boiled. The use of oil is very limited in Japanese cuisines and fried things are few in the cuisines. Only tempura is the highly successful and famous fried dish of Japan. Few famous dishes of Japan are Tempura, Sushi, Domburi, Onigiri, Kare Raisu, Fried rice, Chazuke, Kayu, Sashimi, Yakizanka.
Apart from them Soba, Udon, Ramen, Somen, & Yakisoba are highly popular fish, rice and noodles dishes. In this phase of the assignment we will discuss the different preparation of food and dinning patterns of different countries as mentioned above. SPAIN: Spanish cuisine is highly popular due to its huge variety of fresh and delicious foods. Family cooking is a tradition of Spain and comparatively simple dishes are in cuisines which are simple to prepare and includes fresh ingredients. Besides meat, chicken, fish and seafood, rice, beans, eggs and vegetables are included in most of their dishes.
Tapas is a small morsels or appetizers which are prepared in huge variety and play an important role in the meals throughout the whole long day. Spanish life style is quiet different from American. A typical or traditional dinning pattern involves a light breakfast around 8 in the morning. Then a mid breakfast is served in the middle of the morning around 11. At 1 p. m. usually Tapas is served with a three course lunch at around 3. Then a tea is served with snacks and biscuits at 6 and evening tea later with Tapas at 8 p. m. At last a three course supper is served at 10.
Mostly the food is prepared in a traditional way with family. There is a tradition that all families’ women prepare the food and they along with their whole family sit and enjoys the food at one large dinning table. They are of the opinion that it gives them opportunity to enjoy food with family as well as to discuss each other matters and help in solving them. MOROCCO: The dinning pattern of Moroccan is very simple. They start up their day with a breakfast. Many Moroccans eat bread with olive oil and tea along with different varieties of Moroccan crepes.
Lunch is a big and main meal of the day. Members of the family come home from school and work. They all sit around a table which is low in the salon. Traditionally, female members prepare foods and serve it. The female member comes before the meal time with a kettle of water, soap and a basin made of aluminum and a dishtowel which she carries over her forearm. She comes near to every family member of the family and pours a little water on their hands to wash with the soap and rinse. Everyone gathered around one big plate placed in the center of the table.
When the family head says “Bismillah” (in the name of God), then the meal starts. Usually the Moroccan eat with their right hand. The take a piece of bread in their hand to scoop up with the food and the feast begins. The lunch meal comprises of a selection of salads with a tagine and couscous. After lunch, the host clears up the table and serves the tea with a plate of fruits. Since the lunch is the main meal time and big, the dinner is usually low and simple. Sometimes people eat leftovers from lunch or prepare soup. In the wedding the feast is enormous.
The meal starts with pastilla, then tagine and after that couscous is served. Then a variety of fruits and at last a mint tea is served with almond filled pastries. PAKISTAN: Normally, Pakistani takes three meals a day, breakfast, lunch and dinner. During evening times, many families take tea with local bakery products. However during Ramadan, the eating patterns changes to Sehri & Iftar. In this country, people usually eat with right hand and consider it as their Islamic tradition. Traditionally, Pakistani families serve food on a table cloth known as Dastarkhaun..
It is placed on floor and all the family members sit and eat over there. A typical Pakistani breakfast consists of eggs, Paratha, lacha, kolcha with tea or Lasse. Qeema, fresh seasonal fruits, milk, honey, butter, jam, and nuts are taken during breakfast. On weekdays or holidays halwa puri with channay is highly popular and in demand. Pakistani breakfast tends to be very heavy. During lunch time, usually meat dishes are prepared with chapattis or rice. A typical Pakistani lunch consists of meat curries, or lentils with some traditionally made vegetables.
Other than meat curries, rice are cooked with meat known as Briyani or Pulao is highly popular in the country. Other than that, nihari and fried fish is also regarded highly during lunch time. Dinner is considered to be main meal when whole family gathers for a occasion. Lentils are never prepared during dinner time, and food prepared which is more savory like kofte, kebabs, Pulao, are prepared. These are served with mint sauce, pickle and salad. And later the traditional desserts are served like kheer, gulab jamun, and kulfi or ras malai and shahi tukaray.
AUSTRALIA: The dinning patterns in Australia are very different then usually we observe in other countries eating habits. Dinner is the main meal of the day when families gather and spend the whole evening together. Sometimes families sit at a dining table and ensure their children to use cutlery proper and obey table manners. Traditionally the food is cooked by the mother with or without help of any other family members. As social changes incurred, fathers also cook. In summers barbecues are very common especially on social events.
It is a tradition that man cooks the meat, and women of that family do the other things. In Australia, eating out culture developed strongly. It is common for most of the people to go to cafes regularly for lunch or breakfast. In general, visits to restaurants are considered as treat and are regarded as a special occasions. Fast food culture is highly popular in Australia nowadays. Local variants of fast food as well as international brands like Mc Donald’s, KFC, and Pizza Hut are very popular in the country. Local producer like Burger Fuel & Hell Pizza are highly rewarded.
Georgia Pie is another highly rewarded company in the fast food industry. JAPAN: Japanese’s dinning patterns are very simple and highly sophisticated. Japanese food is served in bowls and the chopsticks are used along with bowls for dinning purpose. Use of spoons is very rare in Japanese dinning. The Japanese often sit on western style table with chairs. They have cushions on tatami mats with a low dinning table. They usually sit on floor. Japanese food is freshly prepared and has a special aroma in their food. Sea food is must in their meal at dinner.
Salmon, tuna, scallops, prawn and other types of sea food are eaten with a thick, spicy wasabe sauce. A part from it, the food is served elegantly in bite site portions. During lunch time, chicken grilled with quail eggs and pork are highly popular in Japan. Mushrooms with other vegetables are an essential part of dinning at any time. Sushi is also very popular and is considered to be quiet expensive and special dish. It is usually prepared for special occasions. The Breakfast of the Japanese is very simple with mint or green tea with some biscuits or fruits.
Japanese food is not only healthy but has low calories which is the key of their healthy living style. REFERENCES: ? Ashkenazi, Michael & Jacob, Jeanne 2000. “The essence of Japanese cuisines” Published by Pennsylvania press. ? . Casado, Matt A. 1997. “The Spanish cuisine. ” The gourmet’s companion. Published by: Wiley & Sons. ? Simpson, Maureen 1998. “The Australian Cuisine”. Published by: Methuen Haynes, ? Haider, Malik 2006. “Customs and Cultures of Pakistan”. Published by: Green wood publisher. ? Hal, Fatema 2002. “Food of Morocco”. Published by Tuttle publishing.