* In 1905, Pope Urban saw an opportunity for power and decides to help the leader of the Byzantine Empire by killing the turks. As the Pope is Christian, he doesn’t want power in hands of infidels (infidels are people who don’t believe in Christianity), and as Turks are Muslim and did not believe in the same ideas as the pope he wanted to kill them.
* In 1096, Peter the Hermit (a French monk) started the “people’s crusade” which was made up mainly by poor peasants and farmers. Peter the Hermit was known to be a great speaker so he motivated people to fight for the Holy Land. This crusade was not successful since they were not trained, they all died killed by the Turks.
* in 1096-1099 brothers, Godfrey and Baldwin of Bouillon set off the first crusade. They created the first Crusader State at Edessa. They captured Antioch. Disagreements over the rule of Antioch slowed their progress and split their forces, but in August 1098 crusaders reached Jerusalem and the attack lasted over a month, by then its keepers surrendered. One of the brothers died, Godfrey, so Baldwin became the first King of the Christian Kingdom of Jerusalem.
* European lords worked to keep rule over Edessa (when a crusader state was attacked, the Holy Order of Knights fought back). In the second crusade (1147-1149), King Loous VII and Emperor Conrad III instead of protecting Edessa, they wanted to overtake Damascus, and their poorly organized attack resulted into failure. Most crusaders returned home, while those who stayed tried to protect their Holy Land, Jerusalem.
* During 1187-1192, in the third crusade, Saladin (Turkic ruler) rose to power, he believed that everyone who was not Muslim should leave Jerusalem. In order to counterattack, europeans united forces against Muslims (this time three kings united: King Richard the Lionheart, Emperor Fredirick Barbarossa and King Phillip II). Fredirick Barbarossa died and King Phillip returned to Europe, leaving King RIchard fightning for Jerusalem.
* King Richard kept trying to gain control, however Jerusalem never fell. He decided to form a relationship with his foe, Saladin. After multiple tries, he couldn’t get control, but he made an agreement with Saladin, Muslim empire had the control over Jerusalem, however Christians had the right to enter the Holy Land and visit their shrines.
* In 1198 Pope Innocent III called for a new crusade, it was led by French knights and they were set out for the Holy Land, however in 1202 they got distracted by Venetian lords who convinced them to capture the wealth and splendor of the Eastern Orthodox Constantinople instead of the Holy land.
* The Fifth Crusade, led by King Andrew II, went first to the Holy Land and then to Egypt, but it failed.
* Frederick II led the Sixth Crusade, which was successful in the reclaiming of the Kingdom of Jerusalem (in 1228). However, the kingdom was plagued by civil war which made vulnerable to Muslim attacks.
* After 1244, Jerusalem would never again become Christian, Crusades still tried but failed. The last state of Christianity fell in 1291 to the Mamluk Empire.
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