Issues that are to be studied during a research are usually expressed in a statement referred to as a research problem or research question (Lawn et al 2010). The researcher needs to have enough knowledge concerning the field in which he or she wants to contact a research in order for him or her to be able to come up with a research problem which is strong enough to be studied (Manzoni et al 2009; Partridge & Dickey, 2009).
The researcher is supposed to come up with ideas which have not yet been researched on or which needs further development for him or her to be able to come up with a researchable topic. In most cases the research question or problem helps the public to have better insights in the studied field and even fills some knowledge gaps that may be existing in that field. Thus researchers are supposed to do thorough research to know what has already been researched on for them to be in a better position to make some improvement on the knowledge that exists.
The problem to be studied should be significant to the general public and the professionals in the field of study. According to this study the research problem was: the impact of poor essential newborn care practices on neonatal mortality in rural Karnataka. This research problem is relevant in any medical profession since it addresses an important issue, which affects many healthcare systems in the world (Lawn et al 2010). As outlined in the paper many neonatal deaths occurs yearly resulting from careless or lack of knowledge on how to take care of these neonatal.
Even though the authors point out that some research has been performed on this research topic, they point out the need to understand the local settings of concerned regions for better interventions to be undertaken since child birth is often tightly linked to traditions of concerned communities especially in the developing countries like India. Thus their research problem is still relevant given that no research has been done in such settings. Research design The case study research has employed both qualitative and quantitative research design.
In qualitative research designs, answers are given to experiences related to humans (Kain, Gardner & Yates, 2009). Concepts like grounded theory, ethnography, case studies and phenomenology are covered in qualitative research designs (Manzoni et al 2009). This study used interviews to collect data. The interviews were recorded in text form which is a characteristic of qualitative research. Thus the research qualifies to be described as qualitative. The concepts covered in the study were ethnography and grounded theory.
This is because in the paper, the researchers consider different ethnic groups found in rural Karnataka. Furthermore, the participants were interviewed on various cares they offer to neonatal after birth hence this cover the grounded theory concept since giving care is a social responsibility. Therefore the researchers were trying to answer the question on how different birth attendants carry out their services to newborns in rural Karnataka. Quantitative research involves collection of data in numerical form. The authors claim to have used this design to obtain preliminary data for carrying out qualitative research.
Even though the authors state that they used quantitative research design it is not clearly stated the data collected since the paper only talks of administration of questionnaires of which we are not told the kind of information that was to be collected. Justification of use of both qualitative and quantitative research designs From the authors’ point of view, the use of quantitative design was aimed at providing evidence for need to carry out the qualitative research (Lawn et al 2010). It is also pointed out that the quantitative research confirmed earlier research on the same issue on neonatal mortality.
Thus it seems the quantitative research was done to also confirm earlier studies on mortality related to newborn. On the other hand, the use of qualitative design is justified. This is because; obtaining data such as on breastfeeding, place of delivery, delivery hygiene, cord cutting, cord care, asphyxia and thermal care can only be done using qualitative methodology. Recruitment of study participants Recruitment of participants was based on pregnancy. All those who were pregnant and those who became pregnant during study period were allowed to voluntarily participate in the study.
The study employed proactive research design for sampling purposes. This was used to prevent recall biases, which are common in retrospective research designs. Data collection Interviews, focused group discussions and questionnaires were used to collect data from eleven villages within rural Karnataka (Kain, Gardner & Yates, 2009). The method used to choose these villages is not stated in the paper and thus we do not know whether it was done using statistical methods or not. Interviews which were done were semi structured (Partridge & Dickey, 2009).
They were thirty nine in total with thirteen targeting mothers who had delivered recently, ten targeting grandmothers, nine targeting birth attendants and seven targeting informants. The interviews to mothers lacked specificity in time frame especially to mothers who had delivered and therefore could have been prone to errors. In addition the authors do not outline on how they come with the different numbers that they administered the interviews to. Thus, the numbers may not be statistically significant. The five different questionnaires were administered to pregnant mothers at different times.
Three of the questionnaires were administered prior to parturition, one was administered within five days after delivery and the last questionnaire was administered during postnatal period. It is not clear on how those involved in the delivery of the questionnaires knew when the mothers had given birth to administer them on time. In addition, the significance of the number of questionnaires administered is not justified statistically. Eight focused group discussions were undertaken in the study. Of these, three were among groups of mothers, two were among elders and one was carried out among birth attendants.
The group discussions may have been exaggerated by some participants and therefore some of this data may be unreliable to some extent. Furthermore the choice of the number of discussion and the number of participants in the group discussion is not explained hence may be statistically insignificant (Jatana et al 2010). Data analysis From the paper, the authors state that they carried out framework in the analysis of their data. This is a type of data analysis is majorly used in the analysis of qualitative data. The versatility of the method allows it to be used in different qualitative data analysis.
This method allows organization of data into structured transcripts. Credibility, auditability and fittingness The truths about the findings as judged by participants constitute the credibility of the study (Lawn et al 2010). This study is credible to some extent given that the source of data used to make the conclusion is not one, that is, pregnant mothers, birth attendants and grandmothers are utilized to get credible data (Kain, Gardner & Yates, 2009). However, the choice of the numbers of those involved in interviews, group discussions and the number of questionnaires administered raises credibility issues on the research.
Thus, clarity is required pertaining these issues in related studies. If the information presented in the report is accountable then the research is auditable. The coherent of the report determines the auditability of the research paper. The authors of this paper tried their best to remain focused on the problem issue. Thus the paper is auditable. If the participants are faithful then the paper is fitting. From the excerpts from the interviews presented in the paper, the participants seem to be real in relation to daily realities. Thus, the paper is fitting. References Lawn, J. , Mwansa-Kambafwile, J. , Horta, B. , Barros F. & Cousens, S.
(2010). ‘Kangaroo mother care’ to prevent neonatal deaths due to preterm birth complications. International Journal of Epidemiology, 39(Suppl_1): i144-i154. Kain, V. , Gardner, G. & Yates, P. (2009). Neonatal palliative care attitude scale: Development of an instrument to measure the barriers to and facilitators of palliative care in neonatal nursing. Pediatrics, 123(2): e207-e213 Jatana, K. , Oplatek, A. , Stein, M. , Philips, G. , Kang, R. & Elmaraghy, C. (2010). Effects of nasal continuous positive airway pressure and cannula use in the neonatal intensive care unit setting. Archives of Otolaryngology Head & Neck Surgery, 136(3): 287-291.