Labeling is a societal way of correcting wrongs within the community by giving names related to the kind of wrong committed. Unfortunately, this does not always correct the deviant’s behavior. The labeled character internalizes the label and gets accustomed to it so as behave as labeled. Once one is called a thief they become one because the society is already aware of their character and they have no fear. They abide to the ascribed label, (Labeling and Crime, 2001). 2). What is the difference between primary and secondary deviance?
Primary deviance, according to Edwin Lemert, is the initial act in which a person is identified to have committed a social wrong. When the society tries to correct it by punishing the offender they may or not stop committing this act depending on their perception of the form of correction. Secondary deviance is a kind of deviance that results from the reaction of the offender to the initial societal corrective measures. The offender tends to acquaint themselves with stubbornness against first hand correction to mistakes. As result of being labeled they develop a mind set that they are deviants.
The community may try to punish them harder only to realize that they harden and commit the crime more frequently and fully become criminals rather than just deviants, (Crime and Criminology, 2010). 3). What are some examples of master status not in the text? A master status is acquired when one is successfully labeled and develops that particular kind of label making it his/her personality. For example, one may acquire a master status as a prostitute, rapist, gay or homosexual. This may have resulted from an act out of curiosity, desperation or poverty. When it is known to the public they may be labeled.
The community does not want to associate with them and they may not get jobs due to the label and they decided to make it their personality for survival. 4). What are traits associated with them? Master status may result to a complete change in the character and personality of an individual. The new state makes them express low self esteem, shyness to the public, wild reactions that make them commit the crime more even after harsh punishment. They may tend to be closely associated with other criminals and may indulge in other related crimes other than the one they were labeled after.
This mixed reaction results from victimization of the labeled person by capitalizing on his weakness rather than promoting their strengths. 5). How do those assumed traits affect our perceptions of people with that status? The perception of the community on a person who has acquired master status is transformed towards the description of this person in accordance to their label. They are called thieves other than teacher or father which would still be his other roles in the society. The community perceives them as evil and criminals despite any attempt to act well.
6). What are decision-making types used by rational choice theory? Decision making in rational theory may be in two types. Criminal event decision type and criminal involvement decision type. Criminal involvement type of decision making involve the criminal weighing options on whether participating in a criminal activity would yield more benefits or negatives. A cost benefit analysis is first taken before one commits crime. Crime event type of decision making involve the issues related to a particular crime that respond to the questions where, when, and how.
The person must have decided to commit a crime and but they are either held back by either of the above mentioned situations which would promote the success of the crime, (Vito, Maahs, & Holmes, 2007). 7). How do these decisions apply to crime? The rational decision making applies in crime in a number of ways. If a criminal decides that it would be beneficial, advantageous, and lucrative to commit the crime then they would commit it at particular location and specific time as deemed appropriate.
When the analysis is completed the criminal does not fear any punishment emanating for the crime they intend to commit. This is applicable in theft and burglary cases. References Crime and Criminology: retrieved in 2010. http://www. sociologyindex. com/crime. htm 2010 Labeling and Crime: edited in March 2001: http://www. le. ac. uk/education/resources/SocSci/labelling. html 09 Vito, GT F. , Maahs, J. R. & Holmes, R. M. (2007). Criminology: theory, research, and policy. Canada: Jones and Bartlett’s publisher.