The traditional project cycle
MacAthur’s project sequence model
The participatory project management cycle
Then discuss which one of them is best suited to ensure that learning takes place and that project planning improved. According to Cusworth and Franks (1993:3) a project is the investment of capital in a time bound intervention to create productive assets. Capital will be referring to both human resources and physical resources and the productive refers to the outputs or end results of the project. A project can refer to vast array of development initiatives, ranging those designed to enhance through project intended to establish new organizational forms and sets of procedures ,for instance for delivering health care more efficiently ,to project takes place over a particular time (time-bound ),it is intended to achieve a specific objective or set of objectives .There is two broad approaches to project planning namely directive (linear) interactive learning process The traditional project cycle is the directive project cycle ,and is sometimes called the blueprint planning.
Detailed plans are drawn up in advance and implementation occurs in a linear ,sequential fashion .Project decisions taken during design and implementation are relatively pure and can be made into terms of a few controllable variables ,usually of a quantitative nature. The traditional project cycle is based on that assumption and does not easily accommodate any deviations. Deviations such as scope change request can cause major upheavals in the project schedule. The project planning and management is viewed as a cyclic process. The advantage of this model is that it provides for a number of phases designed in such a way as to link the formulation of basic policy guidelines to specific projects and programmes . The project cycle is the framework used by the world bank to design ,prepare ,implement and supervise projects.In practice ,the Word bank and the borrowing country work closely through out the project cycle although they have different roles and responsibilities .Generally the duration of the project cycle is long by commercial standards.
MacAthur’s project sequence model also as interactive learning process. MacAthur sees his project sequence as an improvement on the typical cyclic model since it shows that this is genuine attempt to reflect reality ,not not just a simplified academic model. MacAthur’s project sequence model is characteristics of projects ,namely that it normally requires considerable funding (investment ). This financial commitment is important ,and may come from within a country. The sequence cycle emphasis is on the individual project and not on the general process. Project sequence model on the role of the local is assumed and one of the project goals is to discover what to do in the environment .New learning is seen as essential to success , meaning is developed within the local context not imposed from outside .Objectives and strategies emerge from on-site investigation . Resources ,activities and timetables are adjusted as experience is gained .
Design decisions are experimental and dynamic . Modification occurs as learning takes place . Participatory project management cycle is used to work in a result-oriented and participatory way. With this approach the life span of projects or programmes is divided into various phases which together form the project cycle analysis , planning ,implementation ,monitoring ,evaluation and adjustment. Some organizations want to integrate project cycle management into their activities to meet external (donor) requirements. Others are looking for a new way of getting intended beneficiaries partners and their own personnel more involve in project management through participating and increased ownership. Project participatory management (PPM) is constantly involving . in collaboration with its clients .development in the use of project participatory management project contributes to its innovation .
The knowledge acquired during this process is made to other interested parties . MacArthur’s project sequence cycle is best suited to ensure learning place and that project planning is improved .Interactive planning is based on the premise of uncertainty ,the likely hood that conditions ,problems and solutions are not completely known to the outset knowledge must be obtained as the project proceeds and appropriate modifications made on the basis of this learning ,planning project decisions are often impure and made in terms of shifting and often qualitative factors , by doing so it will give room to learning from the past projects and it will improve the project.