Investigate A range of situational and social crime prevention techniques It is argued by many that the prevention of crime is far more effective than dealing with a criminal act once it has already taken place. This is basically due to the fact that the criminal investigation process, the trial process and the Australian criminal justice system in general is extremely costly, in terms of both resources, money and time. The two main types of crime prevention are categorised as situational and social crime prevention, and there are a number of techniques which can be emptied within these categories in an attempt to substantially reduce the incidents of crime. The cost of crime to society is a great one, and much of this cost is accumulated through the criminal trial right through to the incarceration of an offender. This notion is widely evidenced, as in 2013, The Australian institute of Criminology estimated that crime costs Australia nearly 36 billion dollars a year. Because of this, there has been a shift in focus towards the prevention of criminal activity rather than to simply deal with criminal offences after they have been committed. As previously stated, there are two main types of crime prevention: situational and social.
Situational crime prevention refers to the creation of situations where it is difficult for people to break the law, making it easier to get caught and making the crime more difficult or less rewarding to carry out. Criminologists Cornish and Clarke (2003) have classified crime prevention techniques into five categories: increasing the effort involved in offending, increasing the risk associated with offending, reducing the rewards that come from committing a crime, reducing situational factors that influence the propensity of an individual to offend, and removing excuses for offending behaviour. use of this method of crime prevention is increasing, particularly in areas surrounding markets or shopping centres where security cameras have been put in place to prevent and deter possible criminals. Other examples include certain police powers, especially those under the Children (Protection and Parental Responsibility) Act 1997 (NSW) which give police the power to take children home if they are at risk of becoming involved in anti-social behaviour. Therefore acting as another form of situational crime prevention, by preventing the youths from taking part in any possible criminal activity.