“Criminal phenomenon” is known as white collar crime. White collar crime was firstly talked by Edwin H. Sutherland who was a criminologist. He defined white collar crime in a presidential meeting of the American Sociological Society. This meeting was held at the state of Philadelphia in December 1939 to 1940s. He defined white collar crime as “a crime committed by a person of respectability and high social status in the course of his occupation”. (“Sutherland, 1949:9”). White collar crime includes several of examples such as illegal exploitation of employees, violation, taxes, computer crimes and many more.
White collar crime is most characteristically outlined in relation of class attitudes towards those who commit it. Although these offences are penalised by the law but it’s usually considered by the courts and by sections of general public but as much as less guilty crimes are made by individuals there are generally punished by the courts. White collar crime is one of the most dangerous crimes which individuals make profit from couple of hundreds to dollars to millions of dollars and it can be carried out by only one person or a group of people.
White collar offenders are normally citizens that come from high social status such as people with degrees in middles class and upper class. If a person is poor there are not most likely to commit crime. This type of crime affects everyone from the communication from business companies. Between white collar crime and street crime there is a massive impact, although white collar criminals often learn to attract less to public attention but the huge public attention attract more depending on an individual and a business.
As I mention above people who commit white collar crime are more likely in the middle to upper class societies such as doctors. White collar crime occurs in many forms of ways but this doesn’t involve any physical assault on a person. The occurrences of white collar crime it causes damage to everybody who is in involved in business. A customer will able to be harmed in unplanned events which is recognised as “organised criminals”, this relates to sales of illegal products. As an overall white collar crime carries brands which are harmful than any other systems of crime.
White collar crime is the highest crime to discover or to catch. Individuals that commit white collar crime in the market sections, the media find it difficult to understand because the supervision needs to be updated regularly. White collar consumers have a great deal of expectations by harming the society then other kind of crimes this is because it is “versatility”. Hazel Croall said in 2008 in the house market there were numerous of people who lost their houses which caused loads of distress in society.
Many people suffered but yet white collar crime offenders who made these offences there are normally committed in a large organisations and it makes it more difficult to find these offenders. J Kelly Strader said, the media attends to simply report a minimum of incidents in white collar crime due to having enough evidence been provided. The Deceptive marketing it’s not controlled by the law but it is set as codes and standards which are weakly enforced. The value of prosecuting white collar crime is extremely high for the government to perceive a large percentage of the offenders.
Electronic banking is used in the modern which links to street crime offenders, this doesn’t help it becomes worse which the offenders continue to expand to commit in certain areas. As better or worse the government began to feel pressure of the population of the offenders. White collar crime increases the funds in some areas due to crimes been made. I believe that people who are more educated in the late 20s there lean to commit more of white collar crime in technology but as statistics say that the government have has problems to keep up with white collar crime offences in money and technology.
Hazel Croall and Edwin Sutherland suggested that white collar crime is still been questioned as from today but it is difficult to figure out how many problems it is causing to society. Most of the studies who study white collar crime argued in 2002 the society blamed the U. S government for the failure which enforced by the law because of the fraud offences which was committed by the street crimes. Business fraud is the most common fraud as day to day in business setting in street crimes in poor communities. As a business fraud in U. S white collar crime cost them a billions of dollars per year but as any other fraud or crimes it cost the U.
S organisation a least many then billion as annually. As an average business organisation have lost a lot of millions per a year this is due to employees committing they’re own employees as frauds. Men are twice more likely to commit then women in white collar crime for example 85% of men as mangers cause more fraud in a daily then women as employees but there different types of frauds in society which are been committed by men and these are insurance fraud. An individual making a false claim to insurance companies this links into personal injury and property damage.
By this way people earn more money in other words being selfish and greedy. Insurance frauds include things like compasentation claims in accidents and many more. As a insurance fraud the cost as per a year in today world it cost them the twice in the lasr century for example million billions of dollars as annually in yealy. Another common fraud is arson where as a person to a youngster start a fire on a building such as their own business to claim insurance money but in this situation people claim fraud to lie to earn more money for they own business.
Credit fraud is the other common fraud committed by white collar crime, a he or she as stolen someone else is credit card by using there information. Credit card fraud causes a million of lost per year. Hazel Croal, in the U. S credit card fraud is the most common fraud a least three quarters of credit fraud has been reported of white collar crime. Why is white collar crime the most dangerous type of crime? Edwin Sutherland implied that white collar crime is most likely to suave and less fourth right but less criminals (white collar crime: the uncut version 1983).
The uncut verison 1983 in white collar crime, Sutherland theory at that time was one of the best theories because it concered all types of crime. As statistics white collar crime was never included this was because his theory didn’t support the fact on upper class or business on men weather there commits more crime then women. Sutherland provided four types of evidence which supported his theory and these are personal document, diffusion of illegal practice, isolation and social disograntons. Federal Bureau, believed that white collar crime became a very large of problem to everyone, he said it was punished by the law.
He said the law had no control on the hard crime as the crime got out of hand or convicted in the streets. He said it has caused effects on different people lives. Society suggested the government may have took this serious but won’t doing the job enough has it became more serious and treated communities to suffer more. Quinney (1973) outlined two denfititos of white collar cime, occupational and coporate. Occupational crime is committed by a person in occupation. Whereas corporate crime is committed by the corpatrions as a whole the crime is planned and committed for the corporation finaical gain.
Reference Joyce P, Criminal justice, an introduction to crime and the criminal justice system, USA and Canada, 2006 HG, org, Global Legal Resources, assessed date 28th April 2013 http://www. hg. org/white-collar-crime. html Strander, Kelly, J Undestanding white collar crime assessed date 28th April 2013 http://www. lexisnexis. com/lawschool/study/understanding/pdf/WhiteCollarCh1. pdf Croal H, Understanding white collar crime assessed date 28th April 2013 https://www. mcgraw-hill. co. uk/openup/chapters/0335204279. pdf