It is now commonly reported in the media news and conferences on climate, environmental degradation and global warming and many of these terms are pointing to the compounded nature of the environmental problems and the need for individuals and government to arise, proffer solution and rapidly intervene. The fossil fuels are the most polluting types of fuel to the environment. This is because it is widely used and produced . F is the reaction in the combustion gas that involves carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide (CO, CO2), both of which contribute a large share to the phenomenon of global warming.
This phenomenon has the potential to increase the level of water in the seas, oceans and poles due to the melting of ice and thus the sinking of large areas of the continents. There are many alternatives to fossil fuels that can provide the energy necessary for human life such as solar energy and hydrogen cells. However, all of these alternatives are either still under testing or expensive and this hinders their use in the present time. Another alternative that can be used at the present time due to the fact that it is accessible to all is the biodiesel.
The biodiesel is derived from edible oils used in household cooking and it is formerly regarded as unfit for human use. In restaurants where the owners spend a lot of money to individuals who help them to get rid of these oil can now heave a sigh of relieve in that they can now turn them into fuel suitable for the operation of motor vehicles, generators, motorcycles and any machine that utilizes internal combustion . The biodiesel (Biodiesel) is twice as clean as fossil diesel chemical composition has a smaller number of carbon atoms.
Therefore, they produce less carbon exhaust, which is also the highest for the regular diesel, and by this, the lifespan of the machine is maintained and the biodiesel is conserved. Biodiesel is therefore safer than the regular diesel. It burns at 167 ° while the regular diesel on the other hand burns at 70 ° Celsius. The modus operandi of biodiesel Introduction The basic idea in the production of biodiesel is from used oil preferably from soybean oil. However, in the absence of soyabeans, any other type of vegetable oils can be used depending on the chemical composition.
In the oil molecules, a break in the interaction is initiated by addition of alcohol in the form of methanol or ethanol with the presence of a catalytic sodium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide from glycerol (as output or product of interaction) along with ethyl esters (biodiesel). Methods Purification The action of this interaction in several stages and they are: – 1)initial purification: Since the oil used has already been used in cooking, then it contains a residue that must be disposed of before the beginning of interaction and here a of silk oil passes through a large piece of primary filter
Furthermore, it is heated by placing it on fire to refine the oil at a temperature between 60 ° -70 ° Celsius. 2) – calculating the amount of the incentive: The catalytic factor is usually used in calculating the quantity of sodium hydroxide and this is one of the most important steps of the process This is because any increase or decrease in the quantity of sodium hydroxide would increase the proportion of outside interaction (Glycerol) at the expense of the required product (biodiesel). Variables/materials needed to calculate/obtain the amount of the incentive are
-Methanol (these are at the centre of racing cars and can be found in stores that sell chemicals) – Standard Boboli alcohol (Isopropyl Alcohol 99% IPA). -A scale is needed. -A measure of the acidity of the paper known as the PH obtained in some major pharmacies. -A standard pan. -Gloves and a protective cover to the body. Calibration factor is the amount of catalytic heating oil during the fire where it is in interaction with a separate calibration of the oil as highlighted below: Storage Mix 1 gram of sodium hydroxide with 100 million litre of water to obtain a solution of sodium hydroxide.
Mix 1 billion litre of oil with 10 billion litre of alcohol Boboli. Qatar and the use of sodium hydroxide solution to fall on the oil and alcohol solution, and measure the acidity of the oil solution using paper (PH) . After the addition of every billion litre of sodium hydroxide solution, we will find that acidity has increased. This process continues until it reaches pH between 9-10, then count the number of litre of Millilitres of the signed dropper, and not litre. For example, 6 million litre and grams will be converted to 0.
006 grams of sodium hydroxide per 1 million litre of oil or 6 grams per 1000 billion litres of oil. Adding this to the 6 grams with 3. 5 grams taken as constant, a total of 9. 5 grams of sodium hydroxide per litre of oil is obtained. Add the calculated amount of sodium hydroxide in methanol to that of the whole interaction, away from oil, and half the quantity of methanol quantity of oil used the result of the interaction of sodium oxide and methanol (sodium methoxide). However, be careful as this is a highly toxic chemical compound, and must be kept away from direct skin contact.
It has the potential to destroy the nervous system and therefore one must take all feasible precautions in the conduct of this interaction. Confused: Sodium oxide is added to methanol (sodium methoxide) and then to the oil through the suppression of stirring and then, heating continued for an hour. Sedimentation and Sedimentation After the completion of heating, the composite is placed in the settling tank for 24 hours in which there is separation of glycerol from biodiesel based on the principle of density difference.
In order words, the more the dense glycerol deposit at the bottom and the remaining part settles at the top of the diesel. After the liquidation of reservoir sediments, there is separation to glycerol and diesel, and the difference can be seen easily through the density and viscosity, and if the difference is not obvious, the use of diesel is recommended in this case. To ensure that the use of diesel favoured, the density can be measured using hydrometer which is in stores that sell chemicals . Where reading between 0. 85 -0. 90 densities were not even, then Valdes is not fit for use.
It can also be mixed with biodiesel fossil diesel by 40% to 60% which is vital if the fossil machine contains many parts of rubber. In conclusion, we have thus made a lot of benefits from the use of biodiesel. For instance, we have oil we use, and also we have the price of fuel reduced, and then we are able to maintain the machine, and diminish the emission of the environment. “A diesel motor can also run on a fuel made from used and new vegetable oil called biodiesel (Microsoft Encarta, 2008) Reference El-Messidi, K (2007). “Automobile Industry. ” Microsoft Student 2008 [DVD]. Redmond, WA: Microsoft Corporation, 2007.