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Contexts of disabilities Essay

Section 1 = Legislation and polices that support the human rights and inclusion of individuals with learning disabilities. 1.1 Identify current legislation and polices used by the care sector that are designed to promote the human rights, inclusion, equal life chances and citizenship of individuals with learning disabilities. Legislations and polices is improve the health and wellbeing of people with a learning disability. This legislation and polices balancing their rights with responsibilities. It basically makes it against the law to discriminate against people due to them having a disability. Legislation and polices is deliberate very clear rules which every care sector have to follow which make SEN people life better than before. Employers may still have reasonable medical criteria for employment.

The act defines disability as a substantial and long term adverse effect on person’s ability to carry out daily task. One of the main causes of discrimination is the fear and lack of understanding of others because they are different. In order to prevent discrimination it is important to value people and treat them differently in order to meet their different needs. -Human Rights Act 1998 become law in 2000 gives people rights that there were wished-for to prevent discrimination -Mental Capacity Act2005. Human beings have value and should be treated equally based on the fact that they are human fist. Human worth is not based on either capacity or incapacity. Human rights include the right to life, liberty and security and respect for a private and family life is well. England and Wales have had laws against discrimination since the 1960s. The Race Relations Acts of 1965, 1968 and 1976 outlawed race discrimination, the Equal Pay Act 1970 and the Sex Discrimination Act 1975 outlawed gender discrimination and the Disability Discrimination Act 1995 outlawed disability discrimination.

-Care Standard Act 2000

-Disability Discrimination Act 1995-2005

-Equality Act 2010

-National Health service and Community Act 1990

-procedure and policies of any organization

-Codes of Practice

This is an act of the parliament of the United Kingdom which has now been replaced by the Equality Act 2010. Legislation under the EqA it is unlawful to discriminate against someone who has a disability. The EqA provides protection against discrimination that happens at work, in the provision of services, public functions and premises, and in education. The EqA also deals with discrimination in associations. It does so by making discrimination unlawful in a number of ways, and by providing legal remedies to individuals who experience discrimination

1.2 Explain how this legislation influences the day to day experiences of individuals with learning disabilities and their families The legislation who promotes people rights gives protection to people with disabilities not to be discriminated against on the grounds of their disabilities. Parents of children with special needs often feel that they are the only ones who can handle their child’s care. This is certainly true to an extent but that doesn’t mean that you can’t get away for a few hours every now and then. By leaving your child with a trusted sitter or family member you are teaching your child to handle change. Your child will develop the resilience and adaptability that every kid deserves to learn, regardless of overall health. Legislation gives SEN people and family

Explain how policies influence the day to day experiences of individuals with learning disabilities and their families. Learning disabilities is life time impairment and usual is reducing the ability of the people to live independently. Disable people have the same fundamental rights as any other people. People with learning disabilities should have a support for their needs and this support is given by family and care worker. It is difficult to paint a portrait of what it’s like to manage the day-to-day life of a child with SEN; Getting a job or education, travelling, going for a drink or to the cinema with friends is ordinary activities but for disabled people remain difficult to achie. Our day to day practices and attitude are important in how effective this policies and rights are followed in real life.

Is very important to family members and carers who are supporting people with learning disabilities to… but you may feel confused and distressed. But there is help available for people and families from health, education and social services, 2.1- Explain what is meant by ‘Learning disability’ give examples of causes of learning disabilities including before birth, during birth and after birth. Having a learning disability means that people find it harder to learn certain life skills. The problems experienced vary from person to person. There is no clear and widely accepted definition of “Learning disability”. It is important to remember that people with learning disabilities are people first. Someone with mild disabilities may be able to live independently with minimal support, whereas someone with severe and profound disabilities may require 24 hour care, and help with performing most daily living skills.

The World Health Organisation defines learning disabilities as “a state of arrested or incomplete development of mind.” This means that somebody with a learning disability will have difficulties understanding, learning and remembering, and these difficulties will have an effect on their ability to interact socially, to communicate with others, to learn new things, and sometimes to undertake physical tasks.[Department of Health 2001] Learning disabilities are caused by something that affects the way the brain develops. This may occur when brain is still developing-before birth (prenatally), during birth, or in early childhood. • There are around 1.5 million people in the UK with learning disabilities. These impairments are present when a baby is born or acquired shortly afterwards.

These are some examples. Before birth things can happen to the central nervous system (the brain and spinal cord) that can cause a learning disability. A child can be born with a learning disability if the mother has an accident or illness while she is pregnant, or if the unborn baby develops certain genes Some examples of birth defects that affect the nervous system include Autism, Down syndrome, Prader-Willi syndrome, and Fragile X syndrome. Autism-Some people with autism are able to live relatively independent lives but others may have accompanying learning disabilities and need a lifetime of specialist support. People with autism may also experience over- or under-sensitivity to sounds, touch, tastes, smells, light or colours. Asperger syndrome is a form of autism. People with Asperger syndrome are often of average or above average intelligence. They have fewer problems with speech but may still have difficulties with understanding and processing language.

During birth- A person can be born with a learning disability if he or she does not get enough oxygen during childbirth, or is born too early. Anoxia is a condition in which the brain of the baby does not receive enough oxygen to allow it to develop properly. Anoxia can cause certain forms of epilepsy, mental deficiency, cerebral palsy, and behaviour disorders. If the amount of brain damage is not too severe, however, it may be possible to compensate for the disorder to some extent. Epilepsy can often be controlled with drugs, for instance, and many children with cerebral palsy can learn to control their affected muscles.

After birth- After birth a learning disability can be caused by early childhood illnesses. Some childhood infections can affect the brain, causing learning disability; the most common of these are encephalitis and meningitis. Social and environmental factors, such as poor housing conditions, poor diet and health care, malnutrition, lack of stimulation and all forms of child abuse may lead to learning disability. Severe head injury, for example from a road accident, may result in learning disability

2.2- State the approximate proportion of individuals with a learning disability for whom the cause is “not known”.

2.3- Describe the possible impact on a family of having a member with a learning disability. Coping with a child’s learning disability is stressful for any paren. How will family members take the news? Some time parents will accept the problem and offer support right away. But some parent avoiding talking about child’s LD because they feeling ashamed or hiding something, embarrassed, or guilty. Being in the family of a child with LD is difficult and challenging in every step of your life. These can be a involving practical and emotional issues.

There are medical and educational decisions, financial pressures, and time constraints — all likely to represent additional responsibilities for parents. And all typical emotions naturally concern, frustration, anger, self-recrimination and blame — also contribute to the pressures normally upsetting to the family stability and divisive to a marriage. Also Parents have to balance the demands of all their children, not just those with special needs. eg.. Siblings often feel jealous of all the extra attention a child with LD needs, such as extra help on homework, tutoring, time spent , and may be they quickly to say anger or make comments that can hurt.

1-Know the difference between the medical and social models of disability. 1.1/1.2Over the past few years there are number of ‘models’ of disability which have been clear. The two most commonly mentioned are the ‘social’ and the ‘medical’ models of disability. Medical Model-Medical model of disability views disability as a ‘problem’ or “the victim” belongs to the disabled person. Sometime they think is a ‘personal tragedy’. They think it is not a concern anyone other than the individual affected. Medical model belief that disable person should make extra effort to ensure that they can do it by them self and not inconvenience anyone else rather then they self. Medical model is professional dominance and there are well qualified, experience and professional people.This model more focuses on the need of persons physical, sensory or mental functioning, and use a clinical way support an individual’s disability.

Medical model focus is on what person cannot do, rather then what they do. Social Model-Social model is more inclusive. They think disability is a social problem and self help groups and systems benefits disable people enormously. Social model think disable people have individual identity and they should receive all rights and responsibility. They think they should make their own choices. They try and make possible for how SEN people can participate in activity on same level with non-disabled people. Social model make some certain adjustment for disabled people so they can enjoy the event and not excluded from. For that some time you have to spend some money and time is well. The principal of the social model is that this should be respected every people whether they disable or not.

1.3-Outline how each of the models has developed and evolved over time. Living with disability that is one of the difficulties we can’t even imagine what they going through? People judge differently, Disabled person was also hidden away from the society by family members. There was institution run by government and DR would recommended to parents placed the child and forget about their by family. they often forgotten about theme. E.g.. Is there children are safe? Is their needs are meet? How and what condition they are live? In this institution there were many that traded poorly, abused, neglected and murdered either by family members or at the hands of institution workers. Sometime there were not enough people to take care of them and so they tied baby to their beds even abused physically is well.

A lot of them were died at young ages due to severe neglects and abused. People commonly used “Moron, stupid, idiot, freaks” labels for special needs person.. Most of these pleases are finally closed down in 80’s, 90’s. Now we use group homes and residential treatment programs for today’s society. Family also takes care of their disabled children and adults children and grandparents. We have more understanding and empathy now and authorities are more answerable is well. Also people more educated and get more knowledge about disabled people. This changed people view. Not only society but medical model was very limited for disable person. People have not up to date qualification to help disable people. There was very pity and negative attitude in hospital is well. In hospital Dr and nurse avoid to treat the disabled person. There have no feeling for them and seeing as They feel the society does not accept them; therefore they have low self-esteem and lack confidence in themselves. This causes them to back down when they face problems.

Children and young people with disabilities face discrimination, this means they are sectioned out, compared to the normal people of the society and they have fewer choices. For example; some children/young People are physically disabled which enable them to do such activities and they do not always receive the support they need, due to lack of medical help. Children with disabilities have fewer opportunities compared to other children in society because they cannot always do the things other children can do. Disabled people are still struggling for the right to use public transport, have access to building, go to school or college with their friends and siblings or to get a job this has a negative impact on the disabled children because they lose confidence and they are unable to do the activity the other child is able to do. Lack of confidence will also affect the child in the future.

Time is change now because Disability Discrimination Activity (1995) has helped but people with disabilities still often feel that the dominant culture sees then as different from everyone else. Some parts of society shows positive attitudes towards disabled children to show that they support them. They try and give an impact that they believe everyone is equal and have the same human rights. Nowadays the government show a positive attitude towards disabled children/ young people and their families by proving help and support legally because of the ‘Disability Act 1995 and 2005’ and ‘Every Child Matters 2003’

These acts give more human rights to disabled children. For example, in schools disabled children are given the right to be educated with normal kids and they are given all the support and encouragement, such as teachers would use sign language to help communicate with the child if needed. Also teachers teach all students sign language so that they are able to communicate with the special need child. This is helpful for the special need child because they feel more comfortable in their environment and equally treated. 1.4- Give examples of where each model of disability may be used in service delivery.

Example of medical model:

Disable student unable to go to the building because in entrance they have steps. The medical model would recommend and blamed the wheelchair that this is because of the wheelchair, rather than the steps. A teacher who refuses to make a hand-out in a larger font for a visually impaired student. for that reason The student cannot participate in the class discussion; A member of staff who refuses to make available a copy of a PowerPoint presentation before a lecture. This creates a barrier to learning for the dyslexic students in the group who are likely to have a slower processing and writing speed and who will struggle to understand and record the key points;

Example of Social model:

Disable person wants to go in to the building but is it not possible because in building have a step in entrance. Under the social model there is solution, they put ramp or the stars lift in to the entrance so that wheelchair user is immediately and easy to go in to the building and participate the event. A teenager wants to live independently in their own home but he can’t afford to pay the rent. Under the social model, they find supper {claim benefits} for the teenager so he can pay rent and live in their own home.

A child with visual impairment to read the latest novel, so he can join the cultural activates with everyone else. A solution for social model is that they makes full-text audio recordings available when book is fist published so child can involved in activity and not exclude.

2.1 Identify how the principles of each model are reflected in service delivery. The principal of each model are reflected in service delivery by meeting the additional needs of the disabled person. E.g. A child who is deaf needs support from medical model and specialised equipment from social model, A child who is wheelchair bound needs a support worker for the medical model and involvement in all activites for the social model. The medical model of disability impacts on the inclusion by needing the rights equipment. The social model of disability impact on the inclusion by needing a supports worker.

The medical model of disability impacts on the rights by being able to do activities that able child can do. The social model of disability impacts on the rights by having the freedom of choices. The medical model self-government having and provide special materials, help and support and the right medication. The social model finds individuals needs by having one to one time every so often and having the correct facilities. 2.2 Explain how each of the models of disability impacts on the:


The Early Years Foundation Stage [EYFS] and the National Curriculum give clear guidance’s on an inclusive approach to learning and assessment. The EYFS provides a statement on the duty of settings to meet the needs of all children in relation. We must respect people as they are and not discrimination due to any of team and condition and treat them all same. All children should get the same attention and service. E.g. all children should get the same food menu, and play together regarding of sex, race and disability. Inclusion also involves eliminating discrimination and promoting equality. Throughout its work, the Council is committed to being inclusive – valuing and reflecting the full diversity of the community it serves. It will believe and communicate that: We should focus on individuality

Treat children with equal concern, not all the same
Avoid stereotyping
Provide positive images
When we start remove this barriers and make sure that all children and family can be feel include and part of it. Working towards inclusion involved

We need to respond in such a way that barriers to participation, learning and achievement are removed, inclusion and equality are promoted and a high quality education for all is developed and sustained. An inclusive approach reflects a move away from a deficit model which focuses on aspects of the learner as the problem, where the learner is viewed as deficient in some way. A deficit model also pays inadequate attention to factors such as social expectations, or aspects of the education system or learning environment that could be changed to enable diverse learners to participate and learn. Also, categorising an individual or a group by a single or a few characteristics may be misleading and doesn’t recognise the whole person. Developing inclusion will involve learners, professionals, partners, parents, carers and the wider community.


Inclusion also involves eliminating discrimination and promoting equality. Diversity of It will believe and communicate that: Everyone have to right to be included
Everyone has the right to be treated fairly
Everyone has the right equality of access
We must respect people as they are and not discrimination due to any of team and condition and treat them all same. All children should get the same attention and service. E.g. all children should get the same food menu, and play together regarding of sex, race and disability.


Needs of individuals:

2.3-Explain how own practice promotes the principal of inclusion:

Disability Discrimination Act 1995

Protects the rights of all those with disabilities. It also places a duty on schools (and other organisations) to eliminate barriers to ensure that individuals can gain equal access to services

Disability Discrimination Act 2005

Places a duty for schools to produce a Disability Equality Scheme (DES) and an Access Plan. Schools must encourage participation in all aspects of school life and eliminate harassment and unlawful discrimination Special Educational Needs and

Disability Act 2001

Makes it unlawful for educational providers to discriminate against pupils with a special educational need or a disability Race Relations (Amendment) Act 2000Outlines the duty of organisations to promote good relationships between people from different races. Human Rights Act 1998 Sets out rights of all individuals and allows them to take action against authorities when their rights have been affected Children Act 1989 Sets out the duty of local authorities (including schools) to provide services according to the needs of children and to ensure their safety and welfare Children Act 2004 Sets out the duty to provide effective and accessible services for all children and underpins the five Every Child Matters outcomes

Education Act 1996 Sets out the school’s responsibilities towards children with special educational needs. The Act also requires schools to provide additional resources, equipment and / or additional support to meet their needs Equality Act 2010 Sets out the legal responsibilities of public bodies, including schools, to provide equality of opportunity for all citizens. This brings together nine equality laws.

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