“Critically examine the conditions, which according to author John Casey impact both positively and negatively on the police practice required to implement a community policing strategy” There are a variety of conditions according to John Casey that impact both positively and negatively on police practice and on community policing strategies. Some impacts on these strategies are the types of model police practices such as democratic Anglo-peelian, continental, developing, and authoritarian regimes.
Other conditions that impact on police practice and community policing strategies such as; country stability, community cohesion, pay rates of police, trust within the community and police, political agenda, resources for the police and means for reform and many more. Some of the most easily identified negative impacts that Casey (2010) expresses is the ethnic minorities in communities and the negative impacts that he explains reflected within these situations.
Reinforcing these conditions and helping to express Casey’s (2010) concepts of impacts on police practice and community policing is Skolnick and Bayley, (1988) in ‘Theme and Variation in Community Policing’ as well as the Ontario Ministry Of Children And Youth Services, (2010) in ‘Community Policing Strategies’, Cordner (1995) in ‘Community policing: elements and effects’ and also Tyler (2005) with ‘Policing in black and white: Ethnic group differences in trust and confidence in the police’. A combination of Casey and these other authors can help to explain and identify the positive and negative conditions that impact on police practice and implementation of a community policing strategy.
Before looking at individual conditions that positively and negatively impact directly on police practice and community policing, the main models of policing such as Anglo-peelian, continental, developing and authoritarian have shaped the current conditions. According to Casey (2010), Skolnick and Bayley, (1988) as well as the Ontario Ministry of Children and Youth services (2010) there is no one true meaning as to what community policing is as the meaning changes from culture and geographical location. In the past according to Cordner (1995), the idea of community policing was considered to be only an aspiration, but not an operational concept, which is still valid in some countries that are still developing.
To this day though the concept of community based policing can basically be defined as working with a community, engage with it and co-operate together for the benefit of both the community (also known as the geographic residents of an area) and the police (Casey 2010). Casey (2010) argues how the idea and concept of community policing is now a global aspiration or goal for most countries in their policing practices, but it is important to recognize that the meaning is different for each country and may not be evenly used throughout. Development is still undergoing (Cordner 1995), but community policing is very much active now (Casey 2010).
Anglo-Peelian (also known as democratic) mode is one of the main policing models in Western societies. The advantages that Casey (2010) explains are the effective response of police, better methods of preventing crime, more effective work and information by working with communities, making the citizen central is paramount in this model of policing. It is also effective as it can easily balance community welfare and the initial crime prevention roles and actions that the police undertake.
In contrast to this approach, the continental policing model is similar to an extent. This can be seen from the basic principles for the reasoning of need for the introduction of community policing, (even though the continental community policing comes under a different name known as neighborhood policing (Casey 2010).
The primary difference can be seen within the policing practice, for example, the continental policing practice such as in France, focuses on being more present in the community and operating in the community, as opposed to actually working with the community such as in the Anglo-peelian model. Another difference between these two policing models is that with the continental model according to Casey (2010), focuses more primarily on actual geographical locations, more central policing practice and state focused on militarized policing rather than emphasis on ethnic and racial minorities and communities such as the Anglo-peelian model.
Developing countries are limited as they don’t have the growing and stable economy or community to generally maintain an effective community policing strategy. Majority of the police in developing countries are highly corrupt as a result of lack of morale, low pay, corruption and many other reasons. Countries still developing their communities within them are self-policing and governing rather than police governing. Skolnick and Bayley (1988) emphasis the limitations that models such as for developing countries may face as a result of lack of funds and resources to effectively
improve the police standard and community policing.
Finally the last policing model, the authoritarian practice according to Casey (2010) is said to be actually moving away from the general attempts to implement community policing in society such as within china (Skolnick and Bayley 1988). Community based policing encourages the cooperation of police and residents within communities. Without trust and co-operation such as found within the strict authoritarian model, there is a lack of information of crimes, possible minorities may form in retaliation of the policing strategies, and individuals may start to feel marginalised as well. There are positives and negatives found within all these different types of policing practices.
There are a number of conditions that are concern and determine the effectiveness of policing practice and community policing. There are both positive and negative impacts of these conditions. Some general conditions according to Casey (2010) revolve around the stability of the community and the co-operation and cohesion of this community.
For the concept of community policing to work, there must be a sense of stability within the community, trust with the police, belief of the community that the police are generally interested in the benefit of the community (Ontario Ministry Of Children And Youth Services, 2010), the belief and will of the country and community political commitment to help reform and provide a better form of safety and cohesion of the community for its own benefit. Another concept that is argued again is the resources of the police and government in different countries that allow the functioning of these policing practices being undertaken.
For example, in developing countries, there are not usually any resources to apply these policing practices. Therefore also due to these different conditions within this country such as South Africa for example, there won’t be a positive effect of community based policing strategy; because of culture and other impacts on the type of communities and the running of the country will not allow for the community policing as opposed to other western countries such as how well it would benefit Australia.
Other conditions that Casey (2010) also expresses that impact on the implementation of community policing, such as the connection and networks of the community with itself, the police and also other international organizations which is fundamental in positive direction of community policing and the practice worldwide. These conditions are greatly influential and impact on the positive or negative effects of community policing and policing practice globally.
To further examine these impacts and conditions an example where all these conditions interplay with the policing practice and community policing can be seen with ethnic groups, minorities such as in multicultural Australia. Due to discrimination, some groups of people may feel stigmatized or marginalized in society. Some people that come to Australia may already have a negative idea and concept of police from their previous country which will make it harder for Australian police to connect and build trust with these individuals.
Although these conditions play a major role in the policing practice, it may be found that some problems that rise is over-policing on these ethnic groups and discriminating against them. A negative side-effect of this is possible ethnic based gangs who prey on their own community (Casey 2010) and develop distrust and rift between the community and the police, disrupting the progression for a desired community based policing strategy.
As Tyler (2005) states, the trust in the police and the community is usually to have low morale and cooperation due to distrust, a sense of unfairness in policies and regulations surrounding these minorities and also the way in which the police conduct their policing. If the police and these groups worked together for community safety, other benefits such as allowing effective social preventative procedures, proactive partnerships, responsive and confidence in community and police co-operation, better trust between community, mutually beneficial ties, creating local-level accountability, working with other agencies and NGO’s to better help efficiency in operation would occur and build a stronger overall wellbeing and cohesion.
In conclusion, Casey (2010), demonstrates that there are a variety of different negative and positive aspects of community policing and policing practices. It is also evident through Casey’s work (2010) and also a variety of other authors, the different conditions arise and impact on the implementation of these community based strategies such as policing type models and community stability, resources and many more. There are a variety of positive and negative impacts according to John Casey that impact on police practice and community policing.
Casey, J. 2010. Comparing Policing Strategies. In Policing the World: The practice of International and Transnational Policing. Durham, North Carolina: Carolina Academic Press, pp. 58 – 87
Cordner, G. 1995. Community policing: elements and effects. Police forum: Academy of criminal justice sciences police section, 5 (3), pp. 1 – 16.
Ontario Ministry Of Children And Youth Services. 2010. Community Policing Stategies. Review of the roots of youth violence: a review of major theoretical perspectives, 5 [Accessed: 4 Sep 2013].
Skolnick, J. and Bayley, D. 1988. Theme and Variation in Community Policing. Crime and Justice, 10 pp. 1 – 37.
Tyler, T. 2005. Policing in black and white: Ethnic group differences in trust and confidence in the police. Police Quarterly, 8 (3), pp. 322—342
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