Curriculum is a Latin word, which means the way, which takes a person to his/ her goal. Every nation has an ideology, which becomes the basis of educational planning. The Curriculum defines the way of transforming educational planning into practical implementation through which the enables a nation becomes to achieve its ideological goals. Hence curriculum is the way through which a nation can achieve its aims. Different educational institutions and organisations also achieve their aims through curriculum.
Although teachers, premises, resources and facilities have their own value in educational process, but the curriculum has the central position in the education of students. Curriculum is not only a source of fulfilment of national aims but also it serves the purpose of training and educating needs of individuals. The Ancient Concept of Curriculum: Firstly, the concept of curriculum was restricted to class and school. According to ancient concept of curriculum it was a combination of few subjects.
According to this concept the students were required to study and learn few books in order to get them educated. Although it is against the observation and experience because by learning the subjects by heart neither the notions of concentration and creativity can be established nor the characteristics of In The Curriculum Bobbitt writes as follows: The central theory [of curriculum] is simple. Human life, however varied, consists in the performance of specific activities. Education that prepares for life is one that prepares definitely and adequately for these specific activities.
However numerous and diverse they may be for any social class they can be discovered. This requires only that one go out into the world of affairs and discover the particulars of which their affairs consist. These will show the abilities, attitudes, habits, appreciation and forms of knowledge that men need. These will be the objectives of the curriculum. They will be numerous, definite and particularized. The curriculum will then be that series of experiences which children and youth must have by way of obtaining those objectives. (1918: 42)
It is helpful to consider these ways of approaching curriculum theory and practice in the light of Aristotle’s influential categorization of knowledge into three disciplines: the theoretical, the productive and the practical. The modern conception on curriculum includes not only the books but also the activities which are organised in order to educate the students. Students take part in different activities and undertake different experiments. Hence its brings changes in the behaviour of students which is the real essence of education. It includes all those activities,
• which completes the superior educational objectives, • also align education with practical life, • Coordinate between society and education institution. • Prepare students according to present era and circumstances. • guarantees the progress of individual & society. • align the mental, psychological, economical, social & practical aspects. Therefore according to the modern definition of curriculum, Curriculum is defined as a complete struggle, which is designed to achieve predetermined aims inside & outside the school or educational institution.
According to the encyclopedia of education research curriculum is regarded as those experiments, which are used by school in order to aid the process of education. Hence curriculum is the way through which we guide our generation in order to achieve prescribed aims & objectives. Modern education gives central position to the student rather than teacher. The needs, wishes and psychological desires of students are fulfilled. Social norms and values are given central position in modern curriculum.
Since a good, balanced and flexible curriculum is the best representative of society. Philosophical foundations: Educational curriculum and national ideology go hand in hand with each other. National philosophy gives rise to individual identity. When this philosophy becomes the foundation of education, the new generation gets enriched with these national characteristics. Curriculum designing addresses the questions such as what is the goal of our life and how it can be aligned with our curriculum.
What is the opinion of the people of the nation regarding the whole world. What are the values of the society and which of these values are permanent and which of them are temporary. Which of these values should be natured by the educational institution where education is just aimed at educating students or has other utilities. Should the curriculum be aligned with the religion or the religion should be kept separated from curriculum. Should the curriculum depict the regional values or consist of universal values.
Which subjects should be made compulsory in the secondary education and which the students should be kept under considerations or the national and social necessities should be taken as central point. Psychological foundations: Psychology and education has deep relation ship psychology is the science of human behavior. It explains the human behavioral in different circumstances. Through countless experiments psychologists have divided human development into different grades. Every grade has its own characteristics and necessities.
For the better growth of children all these requirements should be fulfilled because the human brain develops in different levels. The beginning experiences are reflex in nature. In order to develop the co-ordination with the circumstances the child increases his educational level. Hence his psychological development takes place in different levels. Therefore it is necessary to keep the psychological needs and desires of the child in consideration while designing a curriculum. References Bobbitt, F. (1918) The Curriculum, Boston: Houghton Mifflin