Indeed, should it be of necessity or required for students to evaluate, collate and compute data in all work prescription in class, important machinery to achieve this must be recommended as part of the needed gadget. (Zardoya, 2001). Business researchers are similarly concerned with the question of whether or not the introduction of information technology leads to increased output, excellent evaluation in reasoning and advantageous edge of counterparts (Al-Gahtani, 2003).
ICT – this is an acronyms for Information and Communication and technology, constituting system hardware and software that enhance data resource for use in many applications. Internet inclusive with provision of world wide web. (Clark et al. , 2005). That is, we need to shift focus from robotic use of technology. The quest should rather be innovative ways of information technology to massively enhance the gains and ease of studies at all levels(p. 4). Overall, CACSR makes provision for students through interaction with the surroundings.
This possibly ensure a sustained focus at the same time educating students on skills as they read expository text passages (Kim et al. ,). Studies have shown that “educational technology that includes dictionary components has been used successfully to promote literacy skill development among elementary school students” (Fry & Gosky, 2007). In analyzing the study, a researcher suggested that writer’s with back up soft copy in CD-ROM provides more strategy towards enhancing the problem of elaboration from close by tutor. The soft copy leaves the students independent of the teacher to a greater extent than none (Fry & Gosky).
QuickSmart is a computer-assisted program designed to improve the self-improving ability of students who are face with challenges of grabbing problem most expecially in their mid-year at school (Graham & Bellert, et al. , 2007,). Based on an information –analyzing point of intuitive processings, QuickSmart was intended to be a elaborated dealings with attention on the primary learning skills needed to do well in assimilating classroom instruction. (Graham & Bellert, et al). It is a Concept-mapping software, or webbing, in that students are permitted to build up strategic maps with the aid of specific programs (Marchinko, 2004,).
Concept-mapping software has been used in middle school science classes for example, to help students juxtapose the similarities and differences in plant and animal cells, and in writing class to help students brainstorm. Teachers also use concept-mapping software to give a clue or insight in the direction of the lesson (Marchinko,). The KidTools computer programs as also an electronic performer. It is an aiding technique that focus on behavior and academic performance support software for students with studying default (Miller & Fitzgerald, 2007, p.
13). A cognitive-behavioral modification program, KidTools is one of several programs with increased usage recorded within the last two decades owing to their efficacy reports over time (Miller & Fitzgerald. RockSim is a rocket design program for middle school science class, which “takes students along the path of technology that enhance the design of their own rockets and simulation performance (Wilson, 2005,). Finally, BodyFun on its own is a computer game that perfectly educate on nutrition and other health awareness (Geiger, et al. , 2002,).
In a test of BodyFun among the middle class of school age, the resource and the technical requirements of the schemes is high, in addition to its acceptability among the study environment, it gives a good result (Geiger & Petri, et al. ,). Education is feeling pressure to respond to a mandate to improve the engagement-level of classrooms, due to surveys which repeatedly find middle school students especially characterize traditional classes as cold (Taylor & Duran, 2006, p. 11). Overall, most classrooms continue to implement instructional practices.
The practice has the main essence of textbooks studying and facts cramming with subsequent commitment to memory (Taylor & Duran,). As a result, many researchers have called for a move from the usual teaching to a constructive approach in methods (Taylor & Duran, p. 11). In most classes, this entails increasing the students’ abilities of inquiry, and this can be enhanced through implementation with the most suiting instruments (Taylor & Duran, p . 11). One teacher reports that her middle school students have become mastery of executing video projects and slide shows, this demonstrate they have learnt (Crawford, 2005, p. 2).
InFocus projectors produced a difference that was similar to that of darkness and light with improved class presentation and involvement (Crawford, p. 1). Studies have shown that students who use computers to write reports recorded a higher performance compared to those who do not attempt the use of computer (Taylor & Duran, 2006, p. 10). One study found that teachers who made regular use of PowerPoint presentations felt more confident in their ability to teach and assist students’ competence in using multimedia projection and even other similar method of sophisticated learning (Taylor & Duran, p. 13).
Video streaming is another technology being used in some classrooms (Whitaker, 2003), while some K-12 classrooms are even experimenting with robotics activities to enhance student the convergence of literacy instruction (for example) with Internet technologies is fundamentally reshaping the nature of literacy instruction as teachers seek to prepare children for the futures they deserve engagement in lessons (Williams & Ma, et al. , 2007, p.
201), although most reports on the usefulness of robotics is anecdotal in nature and evidence is still required to demonstrate the effectiveness of using robotics in achieving study aims (Williams et al. , p. 201). Now, many believe that “” (Witte, 2007, p. 93). A threaded discussion group is a series of rotations on a subject (Grisham & Wolsey, p. 651). The study found that through threaded discussion, student engagement was increased. This was because an environment found more friendly were self created and fits appropriately with other peers.
Therefore each of them have equal dominion of the conversation (Grisham & Wolsey, p. 649). Though acknowledging that one of the serious drawbacks to the Web is that students often become lost trying to navigate through “data smog” (Trotter, 2004, p. 1). The MyAccess program is an internet oriented writing scheme that expressly rewards write-up and supplies correct instruction for students at a middle school in Georgia (Ullman, 2006, p. 76).
The program was found to not only relieve teachers much of their paper correcting burden, but also to have permitted immediate report even in more detail that scores it a preferred quality of writing (Ullman, p. 76). Another project reported in the literature was the creation of a website which supported students and average school teachers drawing out a convergence between science and literature within the limited surroundings (Howes & Hamilton, 2003, p. 454). WebQuest is another “powerful instrument” for teachers to use in improving the engagement level of students in their class (Lipscomb, 2003, p.
154). Though relatively new, stakeholders in education are praising its value and facilitate more use (Lipscomb, 2003, p. 153). The important pedagogical purpose of a WebQuest is that it provides tangible experience for students, both with the technology and in the subject matter being explored (Lipscomb, p. 154). More recently, other schools are experimenting with the use of blogs, or web logs, to enhance learning. Witte (2007) pushed for establishment of blog discussion method on the present inter-school network in order to further engage students in learning (p.
95). Witte (2007) decided that blogs were an important go-between among class and students when he found out that, while some students indicated some interest in the period of writing and homework, they were reported, by their parents, to be “on the computer writing essays and poems for hours each night” (Witte, p. 92). A theory was devised as to why diffusion was so slow, with explanations centering on methods used by farmers in generating information on discoveries, and how they direct this in helping their appropriate usage (Rogers, p. 14).
Diffusion theory can help educators understand why technology is and is not adopted in classrooms (Surry, 1997). Other researchers have adopted the diffusion model to counteract the increasing consciousness about how discovered instructive materials have been rendered fallow (Minishi-Majanja & Kiplang’at, p. 4). Indeed, Al-Gahtani’s (2003) literature review revealed 75 articles in which perceived attributes were measured, with the overall result being that agreement and comparative merit attained highest ratings when they were instituted.
Complexity was on the other hand negative on its procedural acceptance (p. 59). While determinists can be either utopian or dystopian (Marx, McCluhan and Toffler versus Ellul, Orwell or Luddites), all determinists see technology as an independent force out of human control. The equally view technology as the sole engine of social change (Surry, 1997, p. 6). In education, developer-based theory results in top-down technology-based reform initiatives such as Goals 2000, which target the diversity of educational change through proposition of a new system with improved hybrid (Surry, p.
7). Overall, “the instructional development process” is of the assumption that technological improved hybrid will suffice the only condition necessary to attract participation of innovative practices. (Surry, p. 7). Adopter-based theoreticians such as Ernest Burkman are prone to point out situations where a technologically superior innovation was rejected by users because of the strength of “human, interpersonal and social factors”. These factors play an importance role in adopting proposed technological superiority” (Surry, p. 11).
Another by-product of adopter-based theory is the study of revenge effects, which occur when new establishments, movements and organisms react with real in a factual but unforeseen situation (Surry, p. 11). Indeed, prediction and accounting for likely results to be caused by an innovation is an integral component of many “adopter-based diffusion theories” (Surry, p. 11). Large scale market forces such as sector growth, volatility and concentration of markets have also been of use in acceptance of technology (Park et al. , p. 1480). Subjective norm is another strong construction developed along this line of research.
Subjective norm is defined as an individual’s believe that perhaps exist in contrast to other people. Subjective norm has been shown to strongly influence adoption of technology, especially if use is mandatory and not voluntary (Park & O’Brien, et al. , p. 1480). All of this feeds into instruction through the lens of constructivism, or the belief that learning happens in a deliberate effort to construct a “public entity”, be it the simplest of task where resources are in abundance or a more complex assignment (Williams & Ma, et al. , 2007).
In this context, technology is used in education to create a system whereby that enhance “study by making” and “study by design” (Williams & Ma, et al. ,). Various programs along these lines include efforts to have children design computer games, and promote studying with “programmable bricks” (Williams et al). Thus, from the constructivist point of view, the availability of computer systems in learning rooms does not attach huge significance as presently being in used (Sheumaker & Slate,).
Integration of computers is deemed successful only when students learn with the computer system and not the reverse (Sheumaker & Slate, et al. , p. 3) Finally, reinforcing this model is the ecological model of technology integration in education. According to this model, technologies are only acting in a social settings, incorporated within the events of learning processes (Kupperman & Fishman, 2002,). Through the use of new tools we develop new literacies, and from use or non-use are discovered as being “full, subsidiary or un-involving class members (Kupperman & Fishman,).
Mention of the word “actor” enlists actor-network theory into these models as well. According to this model, the social globe is materially diverse and consists of a interconnected chains of animate and inanimate participants who only interact and negotiate for rules imposition through series of deliberations and alliances (Samarawickrema & Stacey, 2007). In order to have their way, these various actors may use bargaining, lobbying, subtle computation and at the extreme, violence (Samarawickrema & Stacey,).