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Computer-assisted translation Essay

A literal translation is a translation that follows closely the form of the source language. Also known as: | word-for-word translation| Literal translation, or directed translation, is the rendering of text from one language to another “word-for-word” (Latin: “verbum pro verbo”) rather than conveying the sense of the original. (This distinction is valid only when a literal translation does not accurately convey the sense, which is not invariably true.)

Literal translation, or directed translation, is the rendering of text from one language to another “word-for-word” (Latin: “verbum pro verbo”) rather than conveying the sense of the original. (This distinction is valid only when a literal translation does not accurately convey the sense, which is not invariably true. ) In translation studies, “literal translation” denotes technical translation of scientific, technical, technological or legal texts. [1] In translation theory, another term for “literal translation” is “metaphrase”; and for phrasal (“sense”) translation — “paraphrase.

” When considered a bad practice of conveying word by word (lexeme to lexeme, or morpheme to lexeme) translation of non-technical type literal translations has the meaning of mistranslating idioms,[2] for example, or in the context of translating an analytic language to a synthetic language, it renders even the grammar unintelligible. Term in translation studies Usage The term “literal translation” often appeared in the titles of 19th-century English translations of classical, Bible and other texts.

Cribs Literal translations (“cribs,” “ponies”, or “trots”) are sometimes prepared for a writer who is translating a work written in a language he does not know. For example, Robert Pinsky is reported to have used a literal translation in preparing his translation of Dante’s Inferno (1994), as he does not know Italian. [citation needed] Similarly, Richard Pevear worked from literal translations provided by his wife, Larissa Volokhonsky, in their translations of several Russian novels. [citation needed].

Poetry to prose Literal translation can also denote a translation that represents the precise meaning of the original text but does not attempt to convey its style, beauty, or poetry. There is, however, a great deal of difference between a literal translation of a poetic work and a prose translation. A literal translation of poetry may be in prose rather than verse, but also be error free. Charles Singleton’s translation of The Divine Comedy (1975) is regarded as a prose translation.

As a bad practice “Literal” translation implies that it is probably full of errors, since the translator has made no effort to convey, for example, correct idioms or shades of meaning. Examples A literal English translation of the German word “Kindergarten” would be “children garden,” but in English the expression refers to the school year between pre-school and first grade.

Literal translations in which individual components within words or compounds are translated to create new lexical items in the target language (a process also known as “loan translation”) are called calques, e.g. , “beer garden” from German “Biergarten. ” Literal translation of the Italian sentence, “So che questo non va bene” (“I know that this is not good”), produces “Know(I) that this not goes(it) well,” which has English words and Italian grammar.

Machine translation Early machine translations (as of 1962[3] at least) were notorious for this type of translation as they simply employed a database of words and their translations.

Later attempts utilized common phrases which resulted in better grammatical structure and capture of idioms but with many words left in the original language. For translating synthetic languages, a morphosyntactic analyzer and synthesizer is required. The best systems today use a combination of the above technologies and apply algorithms to correct the “natural” sound of the translation. In the end though, professional translation firms that employ machine translation use it as a tool to create a rough translation that is then tweaked by a human, professional translator.

Pidgins Often, first-generation immigrants create something of a literal translation in how they speak their parents’ native language. This results in a mix of the two languages in something of a pidgin. Many such mixes have specific names, e. g. Spanglish or Germish. For example, American children of German immigrants are heard using “rockingstool” from the German word “Schaukelstuhl” instead of “rocking chair”. Mistranslations Literal translation of idioms is a source of numerous translators’ jokes and apocrypha.

The following famous example has often been told both in the context of newbie translators and that of machine translation: When the sentence “The spirit is willing, but the flesh is weak” (дух бодр, плоть же немощна, an allusion to Mark 14:38) was translated into Russian and then back to English, the result was “The vodka is good, but the meat is rotten” (спирт, конечно, готов, но мясо протухло). This is generally believed to be simply an amusing story, and not a factual reference to an actual machine translation error. [4]

Rating Scales for Narrative (open-ended or constructed) Questions Question: secretarial experience 76| Well QualifiedCandidate has extensive independent secretarial/clerical experience (may be more than approximately five years). Candidate has extensive experience dealing with a wide variety of complex issues relative to challenges encountered in the secretarial/clerical work environment. Candidate provides specific details with respect to the diversity of tasks/projects they were involved in, and his/her roles and responsibilities.

Candidate’s response is thorough and complete and completely addresses the question. | 543| QualifiedCandidate has adequate independent secretarial/clerical experience (may be approximately three to four years). Candidate has experience dealing with a variety of complex issues relative to challenges encountered in the secretarial/clerical work environment; however, his/her experience is not as thorough as that of the well-qualified candidate. Candidate provides specific details in the same areas described for the well-qualified candidate.

Candidate’s response is complete and addresses the question. | 21| Limited QualificationCandidate has limited independent secretarial/clerical experience (may be less than approximately three years). Candidate may have some experience, but that experience is limited or presented vaguely. Candidate may not provide specific details in response to the question. Candidate’s response may not be clear or complete. Candidate’s experience is limited and not at the level required for this position. | Question: social services experience.

76| Well QualifiedCandidate has extensive experience providing professional level social services (may be more than approximately four years). Candidate has experience dealing with a wide variety of issues relative to providing these services. Candidate provides specific details with respect to the services they have provided, the diversity of tasks/projects completed, and his/her role and responsibility. Candidate’s response is thorough and complete and addresses all of the above-outlined areas. | 543| QualifiedCandidate has adequate experience providing professional level social services (may be approximately three to four years).

Candidate has experience dealing with a variety of issues relative to providing these services; however, his/her experience is not as thorough as that of the well-qualified candidate. Candidate provides specific details in the same areas described for the well-qualified candidate. Candidate’s response is complete and addresses all of these areas. | 21| Limited QualificationCandidate lacks adequate experience providing professional level social services (may be less than approximately three years), as required for this position. Candidate may have some experience, but that experience is limited or presented vaguely.

Candidate may not provide specific details in response to the outlined areas of the question. Candidate’s response may not be clear or complete. Candidate’s experience is limited and not at the level required for this position. | Question: experience working with involuntarily committed individuals in a secured setting 76| Well QualifiedCandidate has extensive experience working with involuntarily committed individuals in a secured setting (may be approximately two years). Candidate has experience dealing with a variety of tasks in this setting, including basic cleaning and maintenance.

Candidate provides specific details with respect to the duties performed, diversity of situations encountered, and his/her role in providing service. Candidate’s response is thorough and complete and addresses all of the above-outlined areas. | 543| QualifiedCandidate has adequate experience working with involuntarily committed individuals in a secured setting (may be approximately one year). Candidate has experience dealing with the most important tasks (e. g. , perimeter patrol); however, his/her experience is not as thorough as that of the well-qualified candidate.

Candidate provides specific details in the same areas described for the well-qualified candidate. Candidate’s response is complete and adequately addresses the question. | 21| Limited QualificationCandidate lacks adequate experience working with involuntarily committed individuals in a secured setting (may be less than one year), as required for this position. Candidate may have some experience, but that experience is limited or presented vaguely. Candidate may not provide specific details in response to the scope of the question. Candidate’s response may not be clear or complete.

Candidate’s experience is limited and not at the level required for this position. | Question: interview experience 76| Well QualifiedCandidate has extensive experience interviewing clients to gather information (may be more than approximately two years). Candidate has experience dealing with a wide variety of individuals in a range of situations and specifically identifies the communication medium (e. g. , telephone, in-person). Candidate provides specific details with respect to the duties performed, purpose of interview, diversity of situations encountered, and his/her role.

Candidate’s response is thorough and complete and addresses all of the above-outlined areas. | 543| QualifiedCandidate has adequate experience interviewing clients to gather information (may be approximately one to two years). Candidate has experience dealing with a variety of issues relative to interviewing; however, his/her experience is not as thorough as that of the well-qualified candidate. Candidate provides specific details in the same areas described for the well-qualified candidate. Candidate’s response is complete and addresses all of these areas. | 21|

Limited QualificationCandidate lacks adequate experience conducting interviews with clients (may be less than approximately one year), as required for this position. Candidate may have some experience, but that experience is limited or presented vaguely. Candidate may not provide specific details in response to the scope of the question. Candidate’s response may not be clear or complete.

Candidate’s experience is limited and not at the level required for this position. | Question: customer service experience 76| Well QualifiedCandidate has extensive customer service experience (may be more than approximately three years).

Candidate has experience dealing with a wide variety of individuals in a range of situations (including communicating with difficult and/or hostile customers/clients). Candidate provides specific details with respect to the duties performed, purpose of customer service, diversity of situations encountered, and his/her role in providing service. Candidate’s response is thorough and complete and addresses all of the above-outlined areas. | 543| QualifiedCandidate has adequate customer service experience (may be approximately one to two years).

Candidate has experience dealing with a variety of issues relative to providing customer service; however, his/her experience is not as thorough as that of the well-qualified candidate. Candidate provides specific details in the same areas described for the well-qualified candidate. Candidate’s response is complete and addresses all of these areas. | 21| Limited QualificationCandidate lacks adequate experience providing customer service (may be less than approximately one year), as required for this position. Candidate may have some experience, but that experience is limited or presented vaguely.

Candidate may not provide specific details in response to the scope of the question. Candidate’s response may not be clear or complete. Candidate’s experience is limited and not at the level required for this position. | Semantic differential scale http://edutechwiki. unige. ch/en/Semantic_differential_scale#Examples Attitude scale for a web site (S. Kim MacGregor and Yiping Lou) * boring-interesting * meaningless-meaningful * important-unimportant, * informative-uninformative * disorganized-organized * easy-difficult Websites From UPA’s web maintenance and design, retrieved April 11, 2011.

The XXX association whose web site looks like this is: Unfriendly__1__2__3__4__5__6__7Friendly Amateurish__1__2__3__4__5__6__7Professional Ineffective__1__2__3__4__5__6__7Effective Dull__1__2__3__4__5__6__7Interesting Outdated__1__2__3__4__5__6__7Up-to-date Serious __1__2__3__4__5__6__7

Fun Weak__1__2__3__4__5__6__7Strong This visual design is: Cluttered__1__2__3__4__5__6__7Simple Unbalanced__1__2__3__4__5__6__7Balanced Unpleasant__1__2__3__4__5__6__7Pleasant Delicate__1__2__3__4__5__6__7Bold Confusing__1__2__3__4__5__6__7Clear Self report NURSING EXPERTISE SELF-REPORT SCALE Please circle the answer that best describes you.

* 1. I am an: RN Other * 2. My job is: Staff nurse Assistant Nurse Manager Other * 3. Length of time since graduating as an RN: Under 6 months 6 * months to 3 years More than 3 years * 4. Length of time working on your unit:: Under 6 months 6 months to * 3 years More than 3 years * 5. Previous experience in nursing prior to graduating as an RN: Under * 6 months 6 months to 3 years More than 3 years The following is a list of statements about nursing care. Please circle the number that best represents your agreement with the statement. 1. Strongly Agree 2. Agree 3. Unsure 4. Disagree 5.

Strongly Disagree * 1. I often know ahead of time that my patient will take a turn for the worse. 1 * 2. I frequently draw on past experiences when making patient care decisions. 2 * 3. Quality nursing care results from strictly adhering to policy and procedure. 5 * 4. When I do patient care, only a few pieces of information stand out as critically important. 2 * 5. I am consciously aware of the process of decision making in patient care. 1 * 6. Emotional attachments get in the way of good nursing care. 5 * 7. When something goes wrong with my patient, I seem to know automatically what to do.

2 * 8. Sometimes I find it difficult to identify objective reasons for certain patient care decisions. 2 * 9. The best way to give good nursing care is to get close to the patient. 2 * 10. I find it time consuming to set priorities in patient care. 5 * 11. I make my best decisions about patient care when I remain objective. 4 * 12. In an emergency, things happen so quickly that I don’t know what to do. 5 * 13. I base my patient care decisions more often on the rules that I learned in nursing school than on my experience in patient care. 5 * 14.

It seems obvious to me what things need to be done first for my patients. 2 * 15. I use facts such as lab values and vital signs as my main source of information for making patient care decisions. 5 * 16. I usually require a lot of information about a patient care situation before I am comfortable with making a decision. 4 * 17. I do my best nursing care when I become truly involved with the patient. 1 * 18. I am comfortable with altering standard patient care procedures when I see the need. 3 * 19. Sudden patient care emergencies usually come as a complete surprise to me. 5 * 20.

Most often I find myself relying on gut feelings when it comes to patient care. 5 Source: Reprinted with permission from G. Garland, Self-Report of Competence, Journal of Nursing Staff Development, Vol. 12, No. 4, p. 197, 1996, Lippincott-Raven. http://www. research-paper-example. com/nursing-self-report-scale. html http://upload. wikimedia. org/wikipedia/commons/c/cc/Example_Likert_Scale. svg Administering the thurstone scale Here is the final form. The respondents check only the statements with which they agree. The average ratings by the judges are shown in parentheses.

These would not be included on the actual form given to respondents. Note that the more positive statements have a higher weight. This is a scale to measure your attitude toward marijuana. It does not deal with any other drug, so please consider that the items pertain to marijuana exclusively. We want to know how students feel about this topic. In order to get honest answers, the questionnaires are to be filled out anonymously. Do not sign your name. Please check all those statements with which you agree. | ___| 1. | I don’t approve of something that puts you out of a normal state of mind.

(3.0) | ___| 2. | It has its place. (7. 1) | ___| 3. | It corrupts the individual (2. 2) | ___| 4. | Marijuana does some people a lot of good. (7. 9). | ___| 5. | Having never tried marijuana, I can’t say what effects it would have. (6. 0) | ___| 6. | If marijuana is taken safely, its effect can be quite enjoyable. (8. 9) | ___| 7. | I think it is horrible and corrupting. (1. 6) | ___| 8. | It is usually the drug people start on before addiction. (4. 9) | ___| 9. | It is perfectly healthy and should be legalized. (10. 0) | ___| 10. | Its use by an individual could be the beginning of a sad situation.

(4. 1) | http://psychology. ucdavis. edu/sommerb/sommerdemo/scaling/enrich/thurstone. html Iba ang Pinoy ni Princess O. Canlas Ang Pilipinas ay binubuo ng iba’t ibang lalawigan, at bawat lalawigan ay may kanya-kanyang bernakular. Ngunit iba-iba man ang salita, iba-iba mang lugar ang kinalakihan, iisa lang ang ugat na pinagmulan. Tayo ay Pilipino. Mahirap malaman kung ang isang tao ay Pilipino nga o hindi sa kasalukuyang panahon. Sapagkat ang iba sa atin ay mas nananalantay ang dugong banyaga. At kung minsan pa’y mahirap ding alamin sa kanilang gamit na wika.

May maitim at mayroon namang maputi. May matangos ang ilong at mayroon namang sarat. May matangkad at mayroon din namang pandak. Ngunit isang katangian ang nagbubuklod sa mga Pilipino upang sila’y makilala mo at masabing: “IBA ANG PINOY! ” Ang pagkakawanggawa ay may taglay na iba’t ibang katangian. Sapagkat ang taong mapagkawanggawa ay masasabi ring matulungin sa kapwa, magalang, mabait, mapagbigay, mapagpaumanhin, mapagtimpi, o mapang-unawa. At ang pagkakawanggawang ito ang makikita sa mga Pilipino. Isang katangiang higit sa kayamanan.

Mapapansin hanggang sa kasalukuyan na ang Pinoy ay may kusang loob na pagtulong sa mga taong nasa kanyang paligid, kilala man niya ang mga ito o hindi. Sa lansangan, ang mga bata ay tinutulungang makatawid nang matiwasay. Ang matatanda ay inaalalayan sa kanilang paglalakad. Ang maraming dala-dalahan ay tinutulungan sa pagbibitbit. Ang mga hindi sinasadyang mahulog na bagay ay pinupulot upang iabot. Ang mga upuan sa pampublikong sasakyan ay ipinagkakaloob ng mga kalalakihan sa matatanda o sa kababaihan. Pagbibigay ng pagkain sa mga nagugutom. Pagbabahagi sa mga nangangailangan.

Pagtanggap sa mga bisita nang may sigla, paghahain ng pagkain kahit kung minsan ay wala ng matira para sa kanila. At minsan nama’y pag-ako sa mga gawaing naiwan ng iba. At ang lahat ng mga ito ay ginawa ng kusang-loob at hindi napilitan lamang. Iyan ang Pinoy. Likas sa mga Pilipino ang pagkakawanggawa. At ang kalikasang ito ay dapat ingatan at pagyamanin pa. Nababatid ba natin na ang katangiang ito ay nakapagkukubli ng mga pagkukulang na ating nagawa sa mata ng Diyos? Sa iyong paggawa ng kabutihan, maaring may mga pagkakataon na ika’y hindi napasalamatan o nginitian man lamang ng iyong tinulungan.

At ang iyong ginawa akala mo’y walang saysay o walang kabuluhan. Ngunit may Isang higit sa lahat ay nakakaalam. At Siya ang tanging makapagsusukli sa iyong kabutihan. Ang paggawa ng kabutihan sa kapwa ay may katumbas na gantimpala sa Panginoon. Ngunit hindi man natin makamit ang biyayang iyon dito sa lupa, makasisiguro tayong sa langit ay ipagkakaloob ng Diyos ang gantimpala. Tayo’y mga Pilipino, at nananalantay rin sa ating ugat ang dugong Kristiyano. Ang pagkakawanggawa ay patuloy nating ihandog o ibahagi sa ating kapwa. At hayaang ang ibang bansa ang magsabing, Pinoy ay dakila!


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