The classroom is a dynamic environment wherein nothing is constant except change and the need to continually adapt. This environment affects both students and teachers; students are developing physically, cognitively, and emotionally. Teachers must respond to these changes in the students by adapting the environment, curriculum, instructional style and methods, and classroom management techniques. The process of education and classroom management is therefore one of continual change and reevaluation. The effectively managed classroom is one where a process of planning in several key areas begins before the school year starts. By implementing the management plan developed prior to the start of school and by maintaining the management procedures throughout the year, teachers are more likely to be effective and students react positively to the environment (Everston, Emmer, and Worsham, 2006). Elementary classrooms can become better learning environments when teachers have rules, classroom management skills, and a belief that each child can be successful. Rules help create a predictable atmosphere that limit classroom disruptions and encourage children to use self-control. Children need to be taught that it is their responsibility to make appropriate choices and that they will be held accountable for their actions. Teachers may decide to establish rules or allow their students to assist in formulating them. Teachers who involve their children in the rule making process contend that students are more likely to follow them.
One way to involve students in forming rules is to have them brainstorm as a class or in small groups why they come to school and their goals for learning. Then ask them to name rules that will help them achieve their goals. Write their ideas on the board. If a child states a rule negatively, such as, “Don’t come to school late,” ask how it could be stated in a positive way. The goal is to assist student in becoming thinking, caring, contributing members of society by providing guidance in developing a moral position, values, and ethics consistent with maintaining a viable society, and by helping students to develop the higher cognitive processes of critical thought, problem-solving, and decision-making. In order to do this the teacher will need to create a safe, caring classroom environment of mutual respect and trust where students are provided the opportunity to create, explore, openly participate, and collaborate on meaningful work, and communicate anything without fear of recrimination of any sort, or being ostracized. This is a fifth grade classroom, with twenty students. It is a very variable classroom in cultural diversity issues. The majority are children that come from Latin families, four children are African American. Looking to the Miami educational environment, this classroom is in the average, because most of the schools in this area share the same characteristics. Classroom Procedures, Rules and Routines
Procedures are formalized instructions that support the rules or Classroom Constitution. They represent the expectations and norms of classroom operation and must be taught and practiced. Key classroom procedures can be introduced during first days of class, expanded on and reinforced as the year proceeds. There are five general areas in which students need to be taught to act and that should be supported by procedures; these are: Students’ use of classroom space and facilities.
Students’ behavior in areas outside the classroom, such as the bathroom, lunchroom, drinking fountain, and playgrounds.
Procedures to follow during whole-class activities, such as whether to raise a hand to speak, where to turn in work, and how to get help during seatwork, Procedures during small-group work.
Additional procedures, such as how to behave at the beginning and end of the school-day, and when a visitor arrives. General classroom procedures include how to walk into the classroom and what to do then, how to ask for help, how to participate in class discussions, how to make transitions between activities and classes, sharpen pencils, ask for a restroom break or nurse pass, work independently and with others, get materials, address teachers and other adults, address students, walk in the hall, respond in an emergency or fire drill, listen to the teacher and follow directions, how to clean up one’s area, and end of the day routines. The three procedures this writer will focus on are walking into the classroom procedures, transitioning from one class to another, and end of the day routines. To teach walking into the classroom procedures, the writer will start on the first day of school.
The teacher will talk about why it is important, list the steps on the board, model the steps, and then have students practice. Students will walk into the room quietly, keeping their hands to themselves. Sit down at their assigned seat at the big tables in the center of the room. (They often come in one at time.) They will raise their hand if they need to go their individual desk to get materials for the next class, of if they have a question. If no materials are needed, they will quietly get to work on an assignment they have with them. If the teacher or paraprofessional talks to them or gives instructions, the student will listen and follow directions. Transitioning from one class to another can be problematic. The goal is to teach students to be independent and responsible during these times. The teacher will start on the first day of school. Will discuss why this is important. List the steps on the board, model the steps, and have students practice them. This activity varies, depending on the circumstance, so the steps of the procedure are more general than for some procedures.
The Steps are:
The teacher or paraprofessional says it is time to get ready to go to ___. Clean up area at the table.
Gather needed materials from table or desk.
Line up at the door in our classroom.
Walk quietly toward class when the teacher or paraprofessional gives permission. The end of the day procedures will be taught starting on the first day of school also. We will discuss why this is important. The teacher will list the steps on the board, model the steps, and have students practice them. The steps are:
When the last class of the day is dismissed, walk into the room quietly with hands to yourself. Gather homework or other materials from desk and put things in backpack. Sit at assigned seat at big tables.
You may talk quietly.
When bell rings, walk to door and walk down the hall to exit. During the first month of school, the teacher will teach these procedures and assess whether students need more teaching and reinforcement in these areas, or not. The teacher will give verbal praise, tickets for the class auction, and points on individual point sheets when students follow procedures correctly. The points add up for daily prizes, or can be saved up for bigger prizes. They also add up toward social and activity rewards. If they don’t need much instruction in these areas, the teacher will focus on procedures that they need help with. Two month later, the teacher will work on reinforcing correct procedures, and start to reinforce accurate schoolwork, so that students see the link between procedures and success in school. Next month, the teacher will keep modeling and reinforcing correct procedures, and emphasize reinforcing successful academic activities. It is required that they understand that successful social behavior will increase academic performance.
During the winter months, the teacher will not continually reinforce correct procedures. Teacher will expect students to be learning how to manage themselves and follow procedures automatically. In December, The teacher will give reinforcement when students are more responsible for their own choices in following procedures. During January the writer will teach again procedures to make sure everyone knows them, and then reinforce independent behavior. In February teacher will review procedures once a week and reinforce correct procedures and independent behavior. Since many field trips occur in spring, during March and April the teacher will teach these routines as they relate to preparing for other settings or events. In May teacher will evaluate the performance of students during the year and review activities that students need practice on.
The rules will be shared with the students on the first day of school too. I will use that time to allow my students to create their own classroom expectations, stemming off of my general list. It is going to be used this time to explore the understanding of each expectation, as well as, to create a list of consequences in case an expectation is violated or disregarded. This method of using expectations and consequences is intended for the purpose of minimizing teacher-directed discipline and fostering student-driven motivation, choice, and discipline. The teacher will continue to convey order in the classroom, but will provide students with the skills and opportunities for maintaining self-classroom behavior management and discipline. (See appendix 4)
Classroom Rules or Expectations
Speak kindly to others
Listen when the teacher is talking to you
Follow adult instructions the first time given
Keep area clean
Keep hands and feet to yourself
Do your own best work
Classroom Organization Environment
Since on the first day of school, the teacher will present a short five or seven minute lesson for each rule. Teacher will talk about the rule and get volunteers to demonstrate following the rule and not following it. Then demonstrate with examples and non-examples. Teacher will have the rules posted in the room and refer to them often during the year. Since rules are general, the teacher will talk about how they apply to different situations as the school year progresses. The timeline and reinforcement schedule for teaching rules is the same as for teaching procedures. The teacher will use this same timeline and emphasize how the procedures are specific actions that reflect the rules. Students are instructed to walk into the room and sit at their assigned seats at the big tables in the middle of the room. If they need materials at their individual desks along the wall, they raise their hands to get permission.
Usually students enter one or two at a time, due to their varied schedules. Students each have a desk for their supplies, backpacks, etc. They only have what is needed for the time being on the tables in the middle of the room. This prevents them from getting their things in others’ way and arguing about stuff on the table. The room is not large, but there is plenty of walking space around the tables and desks. Usually there are only one or two people moving at a time. The desk is in the corner where I can see everyone, and the paraprofessional desks are in the other corner where they can see everyone as well. The computer is in the corner by the teacher’s desk, where it is not vulnerable to students messing with it. A book shelf with curriculum materials is along the wall behind the desk. Students may get things from there with permission. The time out desks are behind a partition, and there is a round table there too. If a student is back there, an adult is at the table to supervise and record behavior. The white board is at the front of the room where it is easily seen by all.
A table with supplies for students is located along the wall behind the big tables. They can get paper, art supplies, and classroom books to read from there, with permission. They need to raise their hand for permission to get up for any reason. If they need to sharpen a pencil, they just hold their pencil up in the air to get permission. A student computer table is located next to the supply table. At given times, one or two students may work on this for projects or for free time as a reward. Teacher tells the students that they have to act like the room is full of students, because it is needed to be in the same routine as a larger classroom. Students work individually with the teacher or the paraprofessional, or sometimes in groups of two. They stay at the big table and the teacher presents the lesson from up front, or we work at the tables with them. Sometimes we need to change chairs around to work in a group. (See appendix 5). Classroom Students Work
Students are expected to participate in daily discussions and activities, complete assignments required or assigned by the teacher. Students will complete tests over selected material and information. Students will complete various classroom group projects as well as several smaller individual assignments. These smaller assignments are given throughout the year by the teacher, and are used to enhance the students’ content knowledge. Students will have various opportunities for gaining extra credit points. Communicating Assignments and Work Requirements
Homework for the current day will be written on the homework white-board before students arrive at school. Students are responsible for writing their homework assignments in their assignment books after putting away their coats, books, etc., during homeroom. Class assignments are written on the board at the beginning of each class. Students are responsible for getting out the required text and materials and opening books or workbooks to the correct page and being ready to start class. Pencil and white lined paper, journal or workbooks are the typical form and media. Paper headings must include the name of the student, date, subject, assignment name and/or page. Work missed by absent students will be taken home by a designated friend or picked up by parents. If work is not taken home or picked up on the day of the absence, a folder with a list of class work, homework, worksheets, and notes will be compiled for the student. Consequences may include points off, letter or call to parents, or reduction in grade. Monitoring Progress on and Completion of Assignments
The teacher monitors projects, or longer assignments completed in class, as groups work together during specified times. Those longer-term assignments taken home are the students’ responsibility and the teacher will provide weekly reminders of due dates. Completion of assignments by students will be accomplished by daily homework checks for completion and submission of class work as required. Completed assignments are turned-in by the students by placing them in the teacher’s subject in-baskets. Student work will be maintained in student files. Work retained by the teacher will be in the form of the electronic grade book and behavior journal. Feedback is provided daily, by notation on individual assignments, in the form of grades, and periodic student-teacher conferences or chats. Students will be encouraged to reflect on their progress through the use of KWL charts, open-ended questions, and discussion/review. When students stop doing homework, first step is to ascertain if there is a specific problem.
If the problem is endemic, the teacher will review his or her lessons and/or assignments to determine if there is some shortcoming. Thereafter, for individuals, how to address the problem will vary and be dependent upon the specifics of the situation. Students will take home those materials required to complete homework according to what has been written on the homework white-board for the day. Student work will be displayed on bulletin boards inside and outside of the room, on lines strung in front of the windows and along the back of the room, and from the ceiling when needed. Students will maintain their own files, by subject. Files will include study guides, quizzes, and tests. Periodic file checks will be completed to ensure students have maintained the requisite documentation. Students or parents with disputes regarding individual projects or tests will be referred to the rubric or test itself. Students or parents with disputes regarding overall grades will be provided a report showing all grades for homework, class work, quizzes, tests, and projects. Gaining Classroom Attention
Throughout the school day, the teacher may need to provide the students with important instructions. Some instructions may require the use of direct verbal communication, while others may simply require non-verbal visual communication. Below are a few strategies to use to manage students’ attention. When in need of gaining the entire class’ attention, I will use one of two methods: Clap or Raise. Clap: The teacher will state rather softly, If you hear my voice clap once. If you hear my voice clap twice. Raise: The teacher will simply raise the hand, signaling to the students I need their ears open and their mouths closed. During the training phase, teacher may need to verbally state, “When the hand goes up, the mouth goes shut”.
To inform students a task or lesson is near to ending, teacher will flick the room lights twice while stating, “One or two more minutes with this activity. We will soon be moving on to our next lesson”. Students are expected to attend school each day. Students are expected to assume responsibility for ensuring their Attendance Stick is removed from the absent jar and placed in the Present jar. The classroom teacher will review the jars to ensure the proper sticks have been moved. If a student forgets to switch their stick the teacher will make a reference to that particular student, but it is the student’s responsibility to fix the mistake. Attendance will be sent to the Main Office. Throughout the day, the teacher will give students various worksheets and homework assignments. After each lesson, the students will place their homework into their designated mailbox, located at the back of the room. At the end of the day, when the students are called to retrieve their homework, they will also remove their jackets, coats, book-bags, or lunchboxes from their cubbies and to return to their seat to quietly await dismissal via the intercom. Timeline and Reinforcement Schedule
For each of the rules, the timeline and levels of reinforcement will be about the same. During the first month of school, teacher will teach these rules and assess whether students need more teaching and reinforcement in these areas, or not. Teacher will give verbal praise, tickets for the class auction, and points on individual point sheets when students follow rules correctly. The points add up for daily prizes, or can be saved up for bigger prizes. They also add up toward social and activity rewards. If they don’t need much instruction on certain rules, teacher will focus on others that they need help with. In October, teacher will work on reinforcing correct rules, and start to reinforce accurate schoolwork, so that students see the link between following rules and success in school. In November, teacher will keep modeling and reinforcing following the rules, and reinforce successful academic activities.
The teacher wants them to understand that successful social behavior will increase academic performance. During the winter months, will not continually reinforce following the rules. The writer will expect students to be learning how to manage themselves and follow rules and procedures automatically. In December, teacher will give reinforcement when students are more responsible for their own choices in following rules and procedures. During January, this candidate teacher will teach again the rules and procedures to make sure everyone knows them, and then reinforce independent behavior. In February teacher will review rules and procedures once a week and reinforce correct procedures and independent behavior. Since many field trips occur in spring, during March and April I will teach these routines as they relate to preparing for other settings or events. In May I will evaluate the performance of students during the year and review activities that students need practice on. Delivering Instruction. (See appendix 1)
Strategies for Instruction
Identifying students’ learning styles is essential to providing quality education. When developing a classroom curriculum, the teacher must get to know each student; learning the students’ interests, identifying the various learning styles, and recognizing or researching methods to enhance the learning environment as well as the content material. Providing students with knowledge should be our goal as educators, but it shouldn’t end there. We should strive to not only provide knowledge, but to acquire the materials and tools needed to teach our students and render those tools into our students’ hands. Allow our students to explore with manipulative objects and hands-on tools for learning. We need to also provide alternative educational experiences for our students.
Due to the overwhelming variety of learning styles, developmental levels and external interests, our students must be equip to survive basic living situations. Providing alternative learning opportunities, such as trips to the local grocery store, will not only engage our students in something new, but we will be teaching our students the fundamental and basic skills to survive and succeed in life. While developing the classroom management plan, is acknowledged the need for engagement, proximity, structure, support, routine, expectations, consequences and motivation, while incorporating the importance of parental involvement, trust, honesty and a bond of student-parent-teacher respect. It is the goal that by the end of the year students will assume the responsibility needed for their actions; replacing a destructive action with a constructive action as a natural consequence. (See appendix 2) Positive Reinforcement and Consequences
Positive reinforcements of appropriate behavior are the preference and used before applying other consequences or punishment. These positive reinforcements of appropriate behavior are in the form of verbal praise, using other students as models of appropriate behavior, non-verbal signals, and rewards. Positive influence techniques are proactive measures that help students maintain or remind them of appropriate behavior. Three methods of positive influence include: supporting student self-control wherein the teacher helps students stay on-task, pay attention and complete their work, offering situational assistance is where the teacher provides immediate help when students are stuck on work assignments, or a break when students become overly tired, and appraising reality is where teachers point out the underlying causes of students’ behavior, in a friendly way remind them of their obligations, and request continued cooperation.
Another proactive measure is positive repetition. Positive consequences are also in the form of facial expressions, positive words or praise, recognition and rewards that are offered when students comply with expectations and classroom rules. Recognition includes public praise, verbal or as in awarding a certificate to an individual or class, sending positive notes home with the student, or phoning the student’s home with positive comments about the student for the parents Effective praise is personal. The student’s name is mentioned along “with the desired behavior: “Jack, thank you for working quietly back there.” Effective praise is genuine. It must be related to the situation and behavior, “and the teacher’s demeanor should show that it is sincere. Effective praise is descriptive and specific. It lets students know when and “why they are behaving appropriately: “Good, Susan. You went right to work on your essay.” Effective praise is age appropriate. Young children like to be praised publicly. Older students like praise but usually prefer to receive it privately. Rewards or incentives are another positive reinforcement of appropriate behavior. These can take many forms and all be presented to the students as treasures, both tangible and intangible, to choose from. A fairly comprehensive list, compiled by Sue Watson (n.d.), follows: Become a helper to the custodian, librarian, another teacher or the office staff. Become a class monitor for a specific area of need e.g., hall monitor, room check monitor, tidy monitor etc. Helping a younger student with a learning task for a specified period of time. Earn points for a class video. 15 minutes of free choice activity. Work with a friend.
Wear your ball cap or favorite hat for a work period. Read a comic book. Show or tell the class something you have or did. Have lunch with your favorite person or the teacher. Read a story to the principal or to another class. Hand out supplies for a defined number of activities. Free time in another classroom. Receive a positive note for home. Pick something from the prize box. Pick something from the treat box. (Keep it healthy, crackers, animal cookies, fruit, juice boxes, popcorn, granola bars, etc.) Earn tickets toward free time. Free pencil, pen or eraser. Positive phone message or email home. Free poster. Free story for the whole class! (A strategy like this lets others help the student at risk stay on target. Earn a cooking day for the class. Take the bubble blower out a recess. Free homework passes. Leader for the day. An additional gym period with another class. Listen to the radio or CD with a headset for a specified period of time. Have work posted in the hall or near the office. Enjoy a game with a friend or in another class. Be the leader for the first gym activity. If nothing on this list interests the child, ask what type of incentive he/she believes would help him/her to obtain their behavior goals and help keep them on track. Consequences
Consequences are the actions taken by the teacher when students do not comply with the school rules or Classroom Constitution that governs appropriate behavior. There are four types of consequences. These are: logical, conventional, generic, and instructional. Logical consequences are those that this teacher attempts to employ first before more negative or punitive ones. Logical consequences are logically related to the inappropriate behavior and the students are tasked with completing a corrective action for the rule or article they are not in compliance with. For example, if a student does not keep their area or desk neat and clean, they are tasked with cleaning or if the student is discourteous to the teacher, they may be required to take time, reflect on their action and practice ways of being courteous (University of Phoenix (Ed.), 2002, p. 212). Conventional consequences are consequences we see most frequently used and include time-outs, removal from the group or room, or being sent to the office.
These can be modified so they relate to the misbehavior by adjusting phrasing such as in the case of a time-out, “You have chosen time out. You may return to the group when you are ready to learn” (University of Phoenix (Ed.), 2002, p. 212). Generic consequences are often also often positive reinforcement such as reminders, and warnings. Choosing, and planning are consequences that allow students to select from three or four planned options for improving behavior. This behavior plan, established by the student, identifies specific steps the student follows to correct inappropriate, repeated behaviors. It is written, dated and signed by the student. In some literature, this is also referred to as a behavioral contract (University of Phoenix (Ed.), 2002, p. 212). Instructional consequences, the fourth and final, teach students appropriate behavior. These consequences are often in the form of review and practice. Behaviors such as hand raising, courtesy, and lining-up quietly, etc. are learned easily when taught and practiced (University of Phoenix (Ed.), 2002, p. 213).
Consequences are listed in a hierarchy and imposed by starting with the least severe to the most severe response within the period of one day. Each day, students start new. In order to track infractions or non-compliance with the Classroom Constitution, this teacher assigns each student a pocket in a pocket chart wherein each day all students begin with a green card. For the first and second infraction, there is a non-verbal, then verbal warning or reminder of appropriate behavior and/or a restatement of the article infraction, and the card remains green. For the third infraction, a yellow card is placed in the pocket and the student is sent to the Think-About-It Table and must fill in a My Behavior Form that includes basic questions to help the student identify the inappropriate behavior, the reason it is inappropriate, what corrective action the child can perform, and how the teacher may be able to help the student so they do not repeat the behavior.
For the fourth infraction, an orange card is placed in the pocket, the student is sent to the Think-About-It Table, complete a behavior plan, parents are notified of the repeated inappropriate behaviors and informed that the continuation of such behavior will result in more severe actions. For the fifth infraction, a red card is placed in the pocket, the student is sent to the office and parents are again notified. Finally, in cases where the offense is so extreme as in the case of verbal or physical abuse of the teacher or another student, a black card is placed in the pocket, the office is called, the student is removed from the room, and parents are contacted. Classroom Collecting data Strategies
ABC data collection uses basic observations and forms to collect data on a specific behavior, as well as the related antecedent and consequence. That information is essential to conducting a functional behavior assessment in order to analyze behavior and determine consequences. Behavior in children can be better managed and more effectively changed when the interventions are based on a functional analysis of ABC data. Data collection forms do not have to be complicated. They can be written in any format as long as they allow for all of the needed information. The required information on the form should include the name of the person being observed, the date and time of day, and a good setting description. Additionally, observed behaviors, what was happening right before they occurred, and the response or consequence of the behavior should be noted.
Many data collection forms for ABC data only have three columns. The columns are for the antecedent, the behavior, and the consequence. However, it is also important to note the time of the behavioral occurrences, their intensity, especially if they involve an emotional response, the duration, and possibly a place to tally the frequency of specific behaviors. The following is an example of ABC data collection. Typically it is a format that is used when an external observer is available who has the time and ability to observe and document behaviors during specified periods of the day. It is time and personnel intensive. From this data, we can see that when the student is asked to end an activity he is enjoying, he screams, refuses to leave, and ignores. We also can see that the response to Joe’s refusal consists mostly of empty threats. If we follow Joe throughout the day, we may find that he is asked repeatedly to follow directions. In addition, the data reveals that Joe’s family uses threats that are not followed through.
Joe has learned that persistence, ignoring, and refusal will wear parents down. (See appendix #3) Behaviors always have a trigger. That trigger could be to escape an unpleasant situation or to gain recognition or acceptance. Behaviors could also be triggered by the desire to fulfill a physical need. Other behaviors could be the result of a deficit in a particular skill area. It is important to note details about what was happening right before the behavior occurred, the antecedent, in order to determine the true trigger for the behavior. Many antecedents are not observable. For example, things like physical ailments, embarrassment or not understanding what to do can all result in a behavioral response. Sometimes, the ABC data collection may need to include getting information from the individual being observed. Of course, they should not know they are being observed so any questioning should be done after the fact or by someone else. Behaviors should always be specifically described in objective terms. Vague descriptions should be avoided. Additionally, any subjective evaluation of the behavior should be avoided. For example, if a child would not comply with a request, the behavioral description should avoid references to defiance or attitude. However, a good description might be that a student was seated and did not appear to do anything or that a child said “no” or walked away and did not comply.
A lack of a behavior, or not doing anything when a behavior is required, is still a behavior. Teachers sometimes say that a student does not have any concerning behaviors, only to find out that he is failing that class because he refuses to do anything. Behaviors that can be a concern are not limited to disruptive behaviors. It is also important to note any lack of needed behavior. Consequences include any response or result the behavior achieved for the child. For example, the same single behavior occurrence might get a child attention from the teacher and peers, as well as getting him out of doing work. Additionally, it could result in a poor grade. All consequences should be noted. It is important not to ignore any consequence because consequences often serve to promote that same behavior happening again. For example, it might seem obvious that a poor grade was not what a student wanted and so it could not possible be reinforcing. However, it is not unheard of for students to set themselves up for failure due to things like not being emotionally prepared for life after graduation. Never discount a consequence as not being important. Taking good data on the antecedent, the behavior, and the consequences, can provide the essential information for a good functional analysis of behavior. It is the basis for ultimately determining interventions, supports, and consequences that will change inappropriate behaviors into desired behaviors.
ABC data collection can make a teacher’s and a parent’s job much easier. As a conclusion this candidate teacher can bring to a close that, purpose of discipline is to aid in this exciting process by explaining expectations to a group with differing ideas of what learning, school, science and good behavior are. By explicitly stating the responsibilities and consequences of actions in the classroom teachers can smooth these differences enough to focus on teaching students the excitement of discovering new ideas. Discipline is a part of the learning process rather than separate from it. Students’ brains are busy organizing and processing information all the time. There are layer upon layer of lessons to be taught, a whole world of examples to be set and ideas to be sparked and I am thrilled with challenged and the opportunity to teach students so much.
Everston, M., Emmer, E., and Worsham, M. (2006). Maintaining an Effective Learning Climate
[Custom Edition e-text]. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon, Pearson Custom Publishing
Scholastic (n.d.). Our Classroom Standards. Retrieved from http://teacher.scholastic.com/LessonPlans/unit_teamworkstandards.pdf
Teachers Tips Training. Retreived from
Teachnology (n.d.) Classroom Rules: Elementary Level. Retrieved from http://worksheets.teach-
The Essential Elements of Cooperative Learning in the Classroom. Retrieved from http://www.ericdigests.org/1995-1/elements.htm
University of Phoenix. (Ed.). (2002). Maintaining an Effective Learning Climate [University of
Phoenix Custom Edition e-text]. Boston, MA: Pearson Custom Publishing
|Antecedent |Behavior |Consequence | |Parent asks Joe to stop playing on the |Joe screams, “NO!” and refuses to|Parent tells Joe to leave the computer again. | |computer.
|leave the computer. | | |Parent tells Joe to leave the computer. |Joe again refuses to leave. |Parent starts counting to 10 as a warning to | | | |get off the computer. | |Parent starts counting to 10 as a warning to|Joe does not move from the |Parent finishes counting to 10 and again warns| |get off the computer. |computer station. |him to get off the computer. | |Parent finishes counting to 10 and again |Joe stays at the computer and |Parent threatens that Joe lose computer | |warns him to get off the computer. |refuses to leave. |privileges in the future. | |Parent threatens that the Joe will lose |Joe ignores and continues working|The parent count to 10 again and again | |computer privileges in the future. |on the computer. |threatens future computer use. | |The parent counts to 10 again and again |Joe ignores and continues |The parent becomes angry and leaves the room. | |threatens future computer use |computer use. | |
Norms, Expectations, Rules, and Procedures
_ What are my short- and long-term goals for myself this year? _ What are my short- and long-term goals for my students this year?
How will I establish basic procedures in the following areas? _ A. Teacher’s desk and storage areas
_ B. Student desks and storage areas
_ C. Storage for common materials
_ D. Drinking fountains, sink, pencil sharpener
_ E. Restrooms
_ F. Centers or equipment areas
_ G. Computer stations
_ H. Board
Individual Work and Teacher-Led Activities
_ A. Attention during presentations
_ B. Participation
_ C. Talk among students
_ D. Obtaining help
_ E. When individual work has been completed
Transitions into and out of the Room
_ A. Beginning the school day
_ B. Leaving the room
_ C. Returning to the room
_ D. Ending the day
Procedures for Small-Group Instruction
_ A. Getting the class ready
_ B. Student movement
_ C. Expected behavior in the group
_ D. Expected behavior of students out of group
_ E. Materials and supplies
Procedures for Cooperative Group Activities
_ A. Roles of group members
_ B. Expected behavior
_ C. Interaction to include each member
_ D. Interaction to move toward instructional goals
_ A. Distributing materials
_ B. Classroom helpers
_ C. Interruptions or delays
_ D. Restrooms
_ E. Library, resource room, school office
_ F. Cafeteria
_ G. Playground
_ H. Fire and disaster drills
_ I. Classroom helpers
(Everston, Emmer, and Worsham, 2006, p. 39-40)
Planning for Instruction
Complete Before the Lesson Ask Yourself
_ A. What are the most important concepts or skills to be learned? _ B. What kind of learning is your goal (memorization, application, appreciation)? Have you communicated this to your students? _ C. What learning style is targeted by this lesson? Are you varying learning modalities?
_ D. Are there difficult words or concepts that need extra explanation? _ E. How will you help students make connections to previous learning? _ F. What activities will you plan to create interest in the lesson? _ G. How will you make transitions between activities?
_ H. What materials will be needed? Will students need to learn how to use them?
_ I. What procedures will students need to know to complete the activities? _ J. How much time will you allocate for the lesson? For different parts of the lesson?
_ K. If activities require that students work together, how will groups be formed? How will you encourage productive work in groups? _ L. What examples and questioning strategies will you use? Prepare a list of examples for explanations and list higher-order questions. _ M. How will you know during and after the lesson what students understand? _ N. What are some presentation alternatives if students have trouble with concepts (peer explanation, media, etc.)?
_ O. Are there extra- or special-help students?
_ P. How will you make sure that all students participate? _ Q. How will you adjust the lesson if time is too short or too long? _ R. What kind of product, if any, will you expect from students at the end of the lesson?
_ S. What will students do when they finish?
_ T. How will you evaluate students’ work and give them feedback? _ U. How will the concepts you present be used by students in future lessons?
(Everston, Emmer, and Worsham, 2006, p. 109-110)
Planning for Cooperative Group Instruction
_ A. How will student seating be arranged?
_ B. How will individual and group materials and supplies be stored?
Routines and Expectations
_ A. What are your expectations for student movement to, from, and
during group work?
_ B. What expectations about talk will you communicate to students? _ C. What group attention signals will be used?
_ D. Will students have specific roles?
_ E. Do any group skills have to be discussed, modeled, or practiced?
Monitoring, Accountability, and Feedback Procedures _ A. Will group work have individual products, group products, or both? _ B. How will individual or group work be assessed?
_ C. How will you monitor student behavior and work during group activities?
_ D. How will students receive feedback about individual and group performance?
_ E. How will students receive feedback about their behavior in groups?
Group Skills That Must Be Discussed, Modeled, or Practiced _ A. Social skills?
_ B. Explaining skills?
_ C. Leadership skills?
(Everston, Emmer, and Worsham, 2006, p. 130-131)
Lesson Plan for Classroom Management
|KS2004 Correlated Sets | |[pic] | |KS2004.CA.126.96.36.199 |KBI: identifies the topic, main idea(s), supporting details, and theme(s) in text across the content areas and | | |from a variety of sources in appropriate-level texts. |
Specific Content Objectives
Students will be able to identify the topic, main idea, and supporting details of a grade level passage in a variety of content areas.
The language goal is to read for comprehension.
Expected prior Knowledge
Students need to be able to decode words and use context clues to identify words. They need to read at a fourth grade level with 75% comprehension. They need to have a basic vocabulary knowledge level for fourth grade reading material. They need to be able to work with a partner for reading and discussing ideas.
Review procedure for classroom discussion: listen when the teacher is talking, raise hand, listen to others, one person speak at a time. Review procedure for working with partners: taking turns reading (2’s read first, 1’s write), both discussing, raise hand with question after consulting partner. Review procedures for turning in work: classroom clerks for the week collect papers and put in bin.
I got my practice sheets from edHelper.com
Students can work at computers in partner groups to:
look up unknown words at http://dictionary.reference.com
look for Internet articles on related topics of interest
Instructional Strategies for learner success
The paragraphs and articles students will read include information about science, social studies, music, and art. Students work with partners to read passages and decide what the topic, main idea, and supporting details are. They will first answer multiple choice questions about passages and then fill out graphic organizers together. If there is time, or on another day, they will look up topics of interest on the Internet and determine the topic, main idea, and details.
Day 1: Anticipatory Set (Jump-start)
I will have chosen a short article of high interest from Scholastic Magazine. I will write several vocabulary words that may be new from the article on the board. I will ask students what the words are and what topic they may be about. We will discuss the words, meanings, and I will assess prior knowledge about the topic from the discussion.
Day 1: Purpose/ Motivation
I will tell the students that they will be able to identify the topic, main idea, and supporting details about something they read. This matters because they will read for information throughout their lives. They will use this skill when reading about things they need to learn about, as well as items of interest to enrich their lives.
Day 1: Modeling/ Direct Instruction
After explaining that they should listen for the topic, main idea, and details, I will read a short, high- interest article from Scholastic Magazine while they follow along with copies for each partner group. I will show them a multiple choice question about what the main idea of the article is, and we will answer it as a class. I will write the main idea on the board or overhead. Then I will talk about supporting details and give several examples. I will underline these details on my copy on the overhead.
I will ask for input about details and underline them.
Day 1: Guided Practice
I will guide students as they write the main idea and underline the supporting details on their copies of the article in their partner groups. I will give each group two practice pages. One has short passages with multiple choice questions, and the other has short passages with instructions to write the main idea and underline supporting details. Each partner group will do these together. Students will be numbered 1 or 2. 2’s start with the reading and 1’s start with the writing, and then they switch with each passage. I will have a checklist for each group with tasks for this lesson: Write main idea and underline supporting details for the article I read. Read and answer multiple choice questions for passages on corresponding sheet. Look at/read articles of choice from Scholastic Magazine for 15 minutes. May discuss with partner. Read, write main idea, and underline details on corresponding sheet.
Groups can check off each task as they complete it. When they are finished, 1’s put the papers in the bin and students read library or classroom books quietly until the others are finished. I will walk around, observe, informally assess, and give verbal praise and tickets toward a class auction as students work. Groups will also get points for cooperating and being polite in groups. These points will add up toward activity rewards. I make sure they have a lot of reinforcement at the beginning of the guided practice, and as they begin the underlining practice sheet. I will do the first multiple choice question as a class. If necessary, I will do the first one on the underlining sheet as a class.
Students at a lower reading level will be given passages at a lower reading level. I will pair very low students with partners that can help them more. My para or I will read the passages to very low groups if needed.
Day 1: Assessment
I will observe and informally assess students throughout the lesson, and as they do guided practice. I will have a check sheet for students as they do group work. The completed papers will be graded and returned with feedback. After several days of doing other related activities, I will give a test to assess individual comprehension of main idea and details.
Day 1: Reflection/ Plans for Diverse learners
After instruction, reflection on the engagement level and pacing of the lesson, on the procedures and transitions, and on the assessed level of competency of the students provides the avenue for fine-tuning the next day’s lesson. Tutoring, pre-teaching, re-teaching, and scaffolding are strategies available to ensure success of diverse learners. Once it is evident that learners lack the skills needed for the task, a plan must evolve for building those skills.
I will grade the papers and use the results along with the engagement level of the students to determine if students understand the concept so far. I will reflect on whether or not the procedures were understood and followed, and how the transitions went. If necessary, I would re-teach these, or make changes in these aspects. I will also decide whether the lesson was presented at a good pace. If many of them do not get the concept, I will plan to do more multiple choice questions on passages with them before moving on. I could also plan more verbal responses to finding the main idea and details. They could work on reading and sharing verbal responses as a class and in groups.
I would do re-teaching and use more examples and have more verbal responses. I could review using context clues to identify unknown words, and review some basic phonics skills. If the students understand and are ready to move on, I will plan to have them read passages and write the main idea and details on a graphic organizer. They will also find articles on the Internet and identify main idea and details. Finally, they would write a short passage and have other students determine main idea and details.
Day 2: Anticipatory set
(see descriptor above)
Day 2: Purpose/ Motivation
Day 2: Modeling/ Direct Instruction
Day 2: Guided Practice
Day 2: Assessment
Day 2: Reflection/ Plans for Diverse Learners
Day 3: Anticipatory Set
Day 3: Purpose/Motivation
Day 3: Modeling/ Direct Instruction
Day 3: Guided Practice
Day 3: Assessment
Day 3: Reflection/ Plans for Diverse Learners
Day 4: Anticipatory Set
Day 4: Purpose/ Motivation
Day 4: Modeling/ Direct Instruction
Day 4: Guided Practice
Day 4: Assessment
Day 4: Reflection/ Plans for Diverse Learners
Day 5: Anticipatory Set
Day 5: Purpose/ Motivation
Day 5: Modeling/ Direct Instruction
Day 5: Guided Practice
Day 5: Assessment
Day 5: Reflections/ Plans for Diverse Learners
|SAMPLE PARENT LETTER | |Greetings Students and Parents! | |Starting August , you willing be embarking on an exciting journey; a journey that will lead you to, my classroom! Through several forms of| |instruction, I am committed to educating, engaging, and challenging you who are willing and eager to learn! | |You will be pleased to hear that in my class, there are no rules; only expectations. My classroom expectations are clear, simple, and easy| |to follow: | |Listen attentively and follow directions. Throughout the year, our class will be doing many fun and exciting activities. Some will test | |what you know and others will challenge your mind to explore into ideas that you may not know quite yet. It will be important for you to | |listen and follow my directions. | |Ask for permission. I am very flexible and open to allowing you the chance to explore and learn things through hands-on tasks. Some | |activities may require you to use equipment and tools that you are not familiar with.
For your safety, it is very important that you ask | |me for permission before handling materials. | |Be respectful of personal space and property. Students enrolled in my class are guaranteed the right to personal space and respect. To | |ensure our class is engaged and on task, I ask that we each honor the people around us by respecting their space and things. If in doubt, | |use the Golden Rule: Do unto others as you would have them do to you. | |Participate in the group as well as individually. Students are encouraged to succeed and give it their all. My class motto is: I will do | |my best, not be the best, but expect the best from others in the class as well. A student will not be judged by the ability of another | |student. All I can ever ask and expect from the students in my class is that they do their very best—not try to be the best in the | |class—and encourage others to do their best as well. | |HAVE FUN! School is hard work and I believe we are in for a great journey.
A journey would not be of any importance unless you had great | |fun along the way! It is my intention to provide several opportunities for you to explore learning through difference perspectives and to | |have a great deal of FUN! | |I plan to use a positive attitude as well as various teaching techniques to meet your needs. I am hoping to create and maintain an | |open-door policy of communication for parents and students. If you have any questions before the first day of school, I encourage you to | |give me a call at home (812.346.7632) or on my cell phone (502.403.7320). | |Make this year count! Come join the fun and see what the party is all about! | |Mr. James Vincent, 5th Grade | |Spartan Elementary School | | | | | | | | | |
| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |Classroom Rules or Expectations | |My classroom rules are: | |1. Speak kindly to others | |2. Listen when the teacher is talking to you | |3. Follow adult instructions the first time given | |4. Keep area clean | |5. Keep hands and feet to yourself | |6. Do your own best work | | | | | | | | | | | | |