The Indus River Valley and Tigris and Euphrates River Valley civilizations are important to history, and they have some notable similarities and differences in their “institutions” of religion and politics that helped shape the development of them.
One major institution that helped shape the Indus River Valley Civilization is the Aryans. The Aryans might have destroyed and taken over the Indus River Valley Civilization but they did shape that area. They introduced the Caste System in the area, which is still in use in India today. The Aryans had a polytheistic religion which eventually formed into Hinduism. So, the Aryans not only shaped the Indus River Valley area but also India. The Tigris and Euphrates River Valley Civilizations also had a social system but it didn’t influence anything as much as the Aryan Caste System did.
The Tigris and Euphrates River Valley Civilizations had a different “Institution”. They had a monotheistic religion known as Zoroastrianism. Founded in 600 B.C/B.C.E by Zoroaster, it states that there is a supreme deity called Ahura Mazda, and two other gods, the spirit of good named Spenta Mainyu and the spirit of evil named Angra Mainyu are in a cosmic struggle.
In conclusion, the Indus River Valley Civilization and the Tigris and Euphrates River Valley Civilizations had some similarities and differences. Both had a social system, both only the Indus River Valley Civilization had the Aryans,whose polytheistic religion formed into Hinduism. However, the Tigris and Euphrates River Valley Civilizations had Zoroastrianism, a monotheistic religion.