Physical education in pedagogy needs to constantly evaluate learners physical movement with the aim of understanding their optimum capability, suiting instructional adaptation, to provide individual assessment summary in a view to measure performance improvement response with time, and finally to ensure the goal of training success.
Instructional strategies or techniques are an important arm of teaching for any school of thought where a particular skill is acquired. There is the need for the teacher to understand the basic concept of learning as a fundamental tool to come up with the best instructional techniques whose choice would promote the objective of the learning.
Elementary physical education implicate physical exercise as school subject and include gymnastic, athletics, team sports, and other forms of physical exercise thought in school. The learning utilizes cognitive, affective and psychomotor domains in a play or movement exploration setting. An advocacy for students once argued that parents, teachers, and students must aim at removing inglorious practices form physical education by eliminating such involvements or techniques that can gravely pose threat to students’ morale. An example of these is the use of captain to select game team in football, the use of exercise as a mean to punish students.
These practices can only be eliminated by applying a preferred instructional techniques right from the background. The aims should embrace effective guiding of learners to be self-independent and physically fit throughout their entire life.
Analysis and Evaluation
According to researchers “the implementation of exemplary behaviour modification and management techniques in any educational environment generally contribute to effective teaching, proactive learning and enhanced pupil motivation in whatever is the area of specialization (Beighle & Pangrazzi, 2002). An advantage of choosing excellent instructional techniques is to reduce the time spent on managing behavioural issues and increase the productive values from time allotment instructional techniques. (Downing, 1996; Kelly, 1986).
There are researched two basics instructional practices used in elementary physical education. We have the reinforcement techniques and the punishment techniques. This paper shall further critically analyse and evaluate the characteristics of the two broad categories. Reinforcement instructional technique uses daily events of the physical activities and non-physical activities to to complement students in order to enhance skill improvement. Students are guided through a feedback control os assessment after daily events.
Another aspect on reinforcement techniques entail setting up of a conditional system that monitors unacceptable skills and effect correction instantly without pointing out the good ones for encouragement. This second model is often applied when daily interaction approach to reinforcement fails. In situational reinforcement, teachers shower encomium to students found doing well in the practice in a direct or an indirect way. Conversely, a student who is yet to perform up to expectation given a deductive instruction to follow suit.
For example, when a student is doing poorly instructor praises another student close-by who is doing fine or behaving appropriately. When a student is performing a task with minimal attention, the natural tendency for any instructor is to sharply raise an objection, instead, the instructor particularly praise students who are in line with the task.
In a way the non participating students deduce what s most acceptable from what is not without having any sentimental memory in the later future for instructor’s selective dissatisfied focus on him. Another characteristics of situational reinforcement occurs when instructor systematically assume ignorance of behaviours or skills that has nothing to do with physical education study and student’s safety. Instructors try not to show anger or dissatisfaction when students demonstrate annoying behaviour. In another round, when a student changes his or her ugly behavioural path for better, he receives incommensurable but sincere praise.
This reinforces such good skill or act towards self perfection. Words like comparative praise insinuate history of student prior rejection and often bring a sense of insecurity of trust to the concerned student in the future endeavour. This may harm students’ morale in demonstrating what they have really learnt with openness. An example is the use of word like “now”. It implies that instructor is upset with previous behaviour. There is avoidance of making reference to previous bad ways. In order to reinforce this good skill, students doing the right things need several approvals to permanently register the right way into the mind for future use. Another characteristic of situational reinforcement is the teacher’s deliberate attempt at celebrating earning achievement per time.
Each time when physical activities are going on, the students look forward to a memorable fun or celebration and perfect the task in order to qualify. At such fun-event instructors openly explain why the class warrant that celebration. This is an unexpected event for students, the impression created last for several months.
Furthermore, another instructional technique involve specific designation of task for students based on their preferred area of capabilities in as much as the same effect is recorded in the long run at improving their physical educational skills. When students with improved motor skill or fitness performance skill on a task finds it enjoyable, such students is allowed t have maximum time for the activity with privilege granted over others.
This has the effect of stimulating or motivating class members to find their own specialization area and perform even harder on the task. This form of instructional technique ranks high in educational model. It also brings a sense of special recognition in each student and there is an extension of respect for individuals’ differences. Everyone needs this to perform better in any task involving physical exercises.
J. F. Williams, Principles of Physical Education (8th ed. 1964); American Association for Health, Physical Education, and Recreation;
D. Van Dalen, A World History of Physical Education (2d ed. 1971).
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