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Civilization Essay Topics & Paper Examples

Chronology of the Mughal Kings

The Mughul empire was founded by in 1526, when he defeated Ibrahim lodhi,the last of the delhi sultans at he first battle of panipat. The mughuls were a powerful dynasty and left a profound impact on the thoughts and arts of the sub continent. This is a brief chronology documenting the time when the mughuls ruled 1483 babur is born in farghana. 1526 babur defeats ibrahim lodhi, the sultan of delhi at panipat. 1530death of babur and humayun assumes power. 1540 afghan leader sher shah suri defeats humayun andseizes the empire. 1555 humayun re-conquers delhi. 1556 humayun dies, young akber is enthroned. 1605 death of akber and succession of son jahangir. 1617 revolt in the southern states of the empire…

Western Civilization

Between the fifteenth and eighteenth centuries, early modern European society began to fear the possibility that witches existed in their midst. The resultant panic led to massive persecution in the form of the trial and torture and subsequent execution of a 40,000 to 50,000 suspected witches, about 75% of which were women, over a period of 100,000 trials between 1450 and 1750. While estimates written in the mid-1970s place the figures at about 9 million women, this is an exaggerated estimate derived from extremist or polemical feminist accounts which seek to create a proto-feminist depiction of this period. Still, it is difficult to cite any other period in which women were persecuted and subject to atrocities of a similar or…

Citizenship; Civil Society And Civilization

Citizenship as depicted by Weber has its root from Medieval European city, due to the political demands of the rising class, merchants, professionals and skilled workers to control the environment. (Ibid, 294) As earlier mentioned the spate of globalization and interconnectedness has generated a similarity in the construction and design of buildings, structures in the city. This was really not totally possible before with the variables of religion, culture playing a key perspective before. Religion to a greater extent determined the way things were done, for example, buildings in china where not built high , because in the belief that gods work on the earth, no hierarchical order like the Christians, temples built in the country which symbolises the belief…

Evolution Of Cities As A Catalyst To Civilization

The paper seeks to explain the dynamics resulting to the civilization and modernization of our time, using the Athens, Rome, and Alexandria, Chinese cum Indian as a part of the explanation. The rise of democratic government as it relates to the development of cities, modern cities. The impact of religion, politics, leadership idiosyncrasy, trade and commerce, caste /Kinship system as it influenced the evolution of the modern city or state. The paper also looks at Contemporary cities in China and Europe. THE ANCIENT STRUCTURES OF CITIES The misconception of cities as related to population or numerical strength is prevalent even till date, but cities are defined from the perspective of population density; the square metres of the milieu, as it…

The Magicians Nephew Summary

The Inca Empire extended from Quito in Ecuador through Peru to the south of Chile. Like the May and Aztecs they were polytheistic. They had both priests and priestesses. Daily sacrifice was an important part of life and every evening a llama was sacrificed. Priests made sacrifices, looked after the objects in the temples, heard confessions, set penance, specialized in medicine and performed operations Gods Viracocha- Creator of all gods Inti- Sun god Mama- Kilya- moon mother Mama- ilapa- god of thunder/rain They worshiped in temples, the largest of which was Coriancha- the temple of the sun. Incas did not believe use mortar and stones were cut to fit together perfectly. Each temple had gold idols and the bodies of…

Western Civilization

The themes dominating Neto’s poetry are quite indicative of the fact that the veracity and practice of luso-tropicalism, the idea that the Portuguese went to Africa to civilize and christianize Africans, and the notion that the assimilation project was a widespread one, were more myth than reality. The poems included in Sacred Hope illustrate well the oppression, apartheid, (un)civilization, and (un)Christianity brought to Africa by the Portuguese. The poem which in its English translation is called “Western civilization” (“Civilizacao ocidental”), constitutes a good example of that so-called civilization and Christianity brought to Angola (and other parts of Africa) by the Portuguese colonizers. The title of the poem might lead some readers to believe that what is to come is an…

Compare and Contrast Early Civilization

Some of the characteristics in the Indus River Civilization were Harappa Civilization which was formed along the Indus River. On other hand River Dynasties in China was developed in a River Valley. Major cities which were Kalibangan, Mohenjo-Daro, and Harappa. The cities were organized planner, they made of brick to prevent flooding, as well as bathrooms and sewers. The cities in China were divided into class, floods was one of their environmental challenges. The Indus River was more of a peaceful place that had no military. They were never at war because of their dry climate and on each side was water. The River Dynasties in China they were constantly at war and had no obstacles. China and its dynasties…

Great Pyramids

An accomplishment that has always fascinated me has been the Great Pyramids, specifically, The Great Pyramid at Giza. This Great Pyramid is considered to be one of the Seven Wonders of the World. This Great Pyramid contains chambers specifically for the King and Queen and is believed to have taken 20 years to have been built. (Wikipedia) The Egyptians employed many experienced men, up to 100,000. These men were worked hard and work for 10 days to receive one day off. (Smith) What I believe is most amazing in the creation of this Great Pyramid is Egyptians were able to lay these large limestone blocks and keep them straight and balanced without basic tools. They were able to get a…

Samoa Islands

Samoa is a group of islands located in the south pacific, approximately halfway between New Zealand and Hawaii. It consists of two main islands, Upolu and Savaii. Samoa is well-known for its natural beauty and landscape. Samoa is very much a tourist destination. Tourists are attracted to the strong commitment to sport, Samoan cuisine, Samoan lifestyle, natural attractions, and traditional aspects such as tattooing and ceremonial occasions. Although, on the contrary, Samoa has big disadvantages for being located in the pacific region as natural disasters are a reoccurrence in its history. The most recent being the 2009 Tsunami, killing approximately 200 people. The Samoan reputation has also recently become corrupted because of unsettling between Samoans and Tongans. Although this is…

Travel Long Distances

Whenever we have to travel long distances within the country we can travel by train or by air in an aeroplane. I remember my first train journey which I performed when I was just about four years old. After that journey so long back, I have made several journeys by train but, that first journey still lingers in my mind and thoughts. We had to go to Madras, where my father had to attend a Conference. Since we had not then seen Madras and our winter vacations were falling during the dates of the Conference, it was decided that we would all go with father and make a trip to the South. Regarding the visits to different places of the…

The Struggle for Racial Uplift

* Ishmael. He was caught in the jungles of Africa at a young age and has lived his life in captivity ever since. He started out in a zoo-purchased by Walter Sokolow, with whom he learned to communicate telepathically. * Ishmael’s investigation focused on the issue of captivity-and grew into a more comprehensive exploration of humanity. * Ishmael helps the narrator understand his cultural history. Ishmael divides humans into two groups: Leavers and Takers. * Takers are members who believe you should dominate first the planet, then the universe, through technological innovations. Leavers are members of tribal cultures that live simple, basic rules that govern other populations on Earth. * Ishmael helps the narrator see that taker culture is in…

Body Rituals of the Nacirema

Body Rituals of the Nacirema tells a story of a tribal group’s lifestyle and the rituals of it. Miner is actually talking about the American culture. As most of us know, Nacirema is American spelled backwards. In this article, Miner’s intention is not to express the extreme human behavior with the Nacirema, but the way it affects our perception of an unfamiliar culture. If we were to look at the Nacirema’s behaviors with regards to appearance and hygiene without the slightest bit of knowledge about their culture, all of their actions might seem absurd and baffling. Ceremonies performed at the Latipso are among the most interesting practices of the Nacirema. Initially it puzzled me as to why people would fork…

Did Women and Men Benefit Equally from the Renaissance?

ISSUE 1. Did Homo Sapiens Originate in Africa? YES: Christopher Stringer and Robin McKie, from African Exodus: The Origins of Modern Humanity NO: Milford Wolpoff and Rachel Caspari, from Race and Human Evolution Science researcher Christopher Stringer and science writer Robin McKie state that modern humans first developed in Africa and then spread to other parts of the world. Paleoanthropologists Milford Wolpoff and Rachel Caspari counter that modern humans developed simultaneously in different parts of the world. ISSUE 2. Were the Aryans Responsible for the Demise of the Indus Valley Civilization? YES: Stanley Wolpert, from A New History of India, 6th ed. NO: Jonathan Mark Kenoyer, from Ancient Cities of the Indus Valley Civilization Historian Stanley Wolpert states that the…

Why Study History?

The question of why history should be studied is often asked, and many have worked to bring to light their opinion of how this question should be answered. History offers information about how societies behave, and people need to have some sense of how societies function to run their own lives. One can grasp how societies change, what causes the changes, and what elements of society endure despite them. Another perspective on human life is promoted through history. A student of history can test his or her own moral sense by examining the stories of individuals and situations in the past. History can further understanding of society by telling how groups were formed and evolved and provide facts about genealogy….

Compare and Contrast Mesopotamia and Egypt

The ancient river-valley civilizations of Mesopotamia and Egypt share many similarities in their social, political, economic, intellectual, and cultural aspects, however, at the same time; both are very separate from one another. Mesopotamia developed first as a civilization without influence, while Egypt built off of the latter to create their own society, hence the shared traits of their educational system, government, religion, and social structure. But, the variable of location also takes place; once the basis of the civilizations were built, they branched off and continued to progress according to their own specific needs, which explains why the differences of the two lay in detail to the economy, intellect, government, and religion. Both Mesopotamia and Egypt shared certain aspects of…

Western Civilization

In his book, Mein Kampf, Adolf Hitler would write that the causes of the majority of problems in Germany were rooted in this era. By calling to mind the time of Bismarck, an era still vivid in the minds of Germans, Hitler set a feeling in his opus of an expectation to power and victory of Germany. Hitler first praised the German military strength, and then condemned the political leaders who took its strength away. The organization and leadership of the German army were the mightiest that the earth had ever seen. Their deficiencies lay in the limits of all human adequacy in general. The collapse of this army was not the cause of our present-day misfortune, but only the…

Physical Environment in Early Civilizaitons

Although Mesopotamia , Egypt, and The Indus Valley share a lot of physical environments in the development of early civilization, there are minor differences in cultural, agricultural, and social structures. Different civilization are depended on their traits; For example, certain agricultural, political, environmental, and social; Filled with sophisticated monuments, certain trade routes, and how early humans survive. First, Every civilization is different. Relating to document 1 (Excerpt from the story of Gilgamesh) the civilizations are depended on the traits like cities as administrator , a political system based on defined territory rather than kinship. Many people engaged in specialized, non-food-production activities, states distinctions baed largely on accumulation of wealth, monumental buildings, a system for keeping permanent records, long-distance trade, and…

Secrets of The Lost City of the Inca Civilization

Machu Picchu, which when loosely translated means “Old Peak,” is a pre-Columbian Incan city, which is situated high above the Machu Picchu Mountain, which is some 2,400 meters above sea level. It is often referred to as the “Lost City” of the Inca civilization, and is considered one of the most important symbols of the Inca Empire, as it was able to somehow preserve some aspects of the historical civilization. It is regarded as a royal estate and religious retreats for the Incas, and is one of the few sites that were not found by the Spanish conquistadores. Because of this, it was able to preserve the Incan culture in its entirety, which up to now is a very important…

Two Civilizations Next Door Neighbors or Worlds Apart?

As time winds on and centuries pass we are faced with a question. Are we are own county, civilization, government, society? Everything derives from something else. We as humans are the greatest examples. We are molded in the image in which our society finds suitable, but who comes up with these standards of living? The answer is no one individual as it is with everything else . At about 3000 B.C.E. a Sumerian civilization named Mesopotamia began to take shape. only short thereafter so did the civilization of Egypt there is no exception with civilizations Mesopotamia and Egypt they both have similar ideals which were in one way or another diffused into each other’s way of life. Ancient Egypt political…

Foundations of Western Civilization

Essay 1: Pope Urban II launched the First Crusade when the Byzantine emperor Alexios I asked for help to fight against the Muslims. In 1095, Pope Urban II made a speech at the council of Clermont to persuade the people and nobility who attended the council to wage war for their Holy Land against the Seljuk Turks. His speech was considered as one of the most effective speeches given in European history. Because of this speech, he was able to reconcile their fight against the Muslims by telling them that they have to fight together because it is the will of God. In turn, the Crusaders were Christians formed to wage fights against Muslims, pagans and other political enemies of…

Cancun Highlights

Beaches Naturally, the beaches are the biggest draw in Cancun with their soft, white sand and brilliant turquoise-blue water. Cancun’s Hotel Zone is really just one long beach separated from the mainland by a system of lagoons. The dazzling white sand of Cancun’s beaches is light in weight and cool underfoot even in the blazing sun. That’s because it is composed not of silica but rather of microscopic plankton fossils called disco-aster. Cenotes It is estimated that there are more than 6000, although only 2400 are registered. All the fresh water rivers are underground. Being porous, caverns and caves formed where the fresh water collects the cenotes or water sinkholes. The water that gathers in these subterranean cenotes is a…

Strayer Reading Response

The Persian Empire is a “cult of kingship” in which is reached through an elaborate ritual. When the king dies, fires were set off and Perisans shaved their hair. The mans of the horses were cut short too. In Egypt, Persian kings often took care of their religious cults in order to gain support. The Nile eventually was dug and linked into the Red Sea, which enriched Egypt. Darius, one of the leaders, says, “And Ahuramazda was of such a mind, together with all the other gods, that this fortress (should) be built. And (so) I built it. And I built it secure and beautiful and adequate, just as I was intending to.” (Strayer 99) Like Persians, The Greeks were…

Lord of the Flies Central Thematic Dichotomy

The theme of the central thematic dichotomy in lord of the flies is conveyed through many ways through out the first three chapters. The once majestic island has begun to seem as if it is only a mask for the true concealed “beastie.” The seemingly paradisiacal island is very similar to the Garden of Eden as it obtains beauty by the vast amounts of growing foliage such as the “blue flowers,” “candlebuds,” and dense green forest. On the crust the cool, calm and peaceful persona is vivid and clear however just below lies the greed and savagery of all man kind which in the biblical story says that evil was exposed through Eve when she gave into temptation and disobeyed…

Clash of Civilizations

Huntington in his Clash of Civilizations presented a very believable hypothesis. He suggested that future clashes or divisions of world power would be cultural rather than ideological and political in basis. He suggested that the differences between civilizations would be basic in the future, they would be drawn from the groups history, culture, beliefs, and most important ‘religion’. He wrote, ‘The people of different civilizations have different views on the relations between God and man, the individual and the group, the citizen and the state, parents and children, husband and wife, as well as differing views of the relative importance of rights and responsibilities, liberty and authority, equality and hierarchy. These differences are the product of centuries. They will not…

Personal Learning Profile

What technological development, during the early history we covered, do you feel was either a detriment or an enhancement for people to move away from spending all of their lives finding sustenance? The Greeks were a highly civilized society when they came up with the idea of domestication in the Neolithic era (New Stone). It enhanced there civilization and made them be able to accomplish other thing that were important. They didn’t start out that way, but thing where able to change in the Mesopotamian area. The Mesopotamia area is between two rivers the Tigris and the Euphrates. Mesopotamia was the creation of the universe with their ruler Marduk. He made things possible to achieve which made and kept the…

Modern Civilization

Modern Civilization revolves around Technology and the end goal of Technology is to remove the dirt from under the fingernails of Man and make him cultured. In fact, showing a great bias towards city dwellers, the word “Civilization” itself is derived from the Latin word “Civitas” which denotes the townsman who is more refined than his country dwelling contemporaries. But Modern culture and Civilization is characterized by a distancing from nature. The tension between the nature and technology (one of the most important basis of Modern culture prevalent in the cities) forms the basis of his celebrated essay “The Metropolis and the Mental Life”. At the outset Simmel talks about what man requires in his Life. He says “Man is…

Golden Age of Athens versus Reformation in Ancient Western Civilization

During this period the city of Athens was governed by generals. They numbered to ten in total. Citizens existed in clans and they would elect the generals each year. The political structure during this time was constituted of the magistrates, the assembly of the people and the council of Boule. Magistrates majorly formed the administration of the state of Athens. The assembly of the people was a democratic organ. It was a summon assembly that was attended by the people. It was a summon that took place 40 times a year. It functioned in designing and proposing laws and decrees. The council of Boule comprised 50 members each from the 10 clan s in the city of Athens, making a…

The Mesopotamian Dbq (Outline)

Group 1:Mesopotamia * Document 1: This document describes the story of an innocent god that shared water with animals at a watering hole. The document describes the importance of water by referencing to the herds of wild game and Enkidu. The people that have created this document have put much emphasis on water systems. * Document 2: This document covers the spectrum of the river systems and agricultural growth in Mesopotamia, Egypt, and the Indus regions using a map. * Document 3: In this document, a picture depicts reed huts in the marshes of Southern Iraq. It appears that in this area, a large, agricultural-based city does not thrive here. This document stresses that a successful river system is the…

The term Civilization

Civilizations are complex societies with cities, government, art, architecture, religion, class divisions and writing systems. To uphold an effective civilization, cultural diffusion, farming and writing with a spoken language are essential. Cultural diffusion is a key element to maintaining a complex civilization. When people from different civilizations came into contact with one another, they learned from one another. They would learn how other people from different societies did things and all their different and new inventions. They would bring this new understanding back to their cities and villages, which usually brought them back security and prosperity for the future. The transition from hunting and gathering to farming was a huge factor in a well-held civilization. This change was known as…

The Inca Empire: Project Management Legacy

The Inca Empire was one of the most extraordinary, monumental and organized civilization in America. Their domain extended from northern Ecuador to central Chile. Its capital was called Cuzco, which in Quechua means “Navel of the World”. By the time of the Spanish arrival this city had 100,000 inhabitants. Their chief god was the Sun; called “Inti”, this is also the second Peruvian currency. The foundation of the Empire was attributed to the Inca Manco Capac in the thirteenth century. The last emperor Atahualpa was executed by Francisco Pizarro in 1533 in the city of Cajamarca. The Inca emperors were able to maintain and develop its vast domain, due to the concern for the welfare and happiness of his subjects….