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Civilization Essay Topics & Paper Examples

Foundations of Western Civilization

Essay 1: Pope Urban II launched the First Crusade when the Byzantine emperor Alexios I asked for help to fight against the Muslims. In 1095, Pope Urban II made a speech at the council of Clermont to persuade the people and nobility who attended the council to wage war for their Holy Land against the Seljuk Turks. His speech was considered as one of the most effective speeches given in European history. Because of this speech, he was able to reconcile their fight against the Muslims by telling them that they have to fight together because it is the will of God. In turn, the Crusaders were Christians formed to wage fights against Muslims, pagans and other political enemies of…

Cancun Highlights

Beaches Naturally, the beaches are the biggest draw in Cancun with their soft, white sand and brilliant turquoise-blue water. Cancun’s Hotel Zone is really just one long beach separated from the mainland by a system of lagoons. The dazzling white sand of Cancun’s beaches is light in weight and cool underfoot even in the blazing sun. That’s because it is composed not of silica but rather of microscopic plankton fossils called disco-aster. Cenotes It is estimated that there are more than 6000, although only 2400 are registered. All the fresh water rivers are underground. Being porous, caverns and caves formed where the fresh water collects the cenotes or water sinkholes. The water that gathers in these subterranean cenotes is a…

Strayer Reading Response

The Persian Empire is a “cult of kingship” in which is reached through an elaborate ritual. When the king dies, fires were set off and Perisans shaved their hair. The mans of the horses were cut short too. In Egypt, Persian kings often took care of their religious cults in order to gain support. The Nile eventually was dug and linked into the Red Sea, which enriched Egypt. Darius, one of the leaders, says, “And Ahuramazda was of such a mind, together with all the other gods, that this fortress (should) be built. And (so) I built it. And I built it secure and beautiful and adequate, just as I was intending to.” (Strayer 99) Like Persians, The Greeks were…

Lord of the Flies Central Thematic Dichotomy

The theme of the central thematic dichotomy in lord of the flies is conveyed through many ways through out the first three chapters. The once majestic island has begun to seem as if it is only a mask for the true concealed “beastie.” The seemingly paradisiacal island is very similar to the Garden of Eden as it obtains beauty by the vast amounts of growing foliage such as the “blue flowers,” “candlebuds,” and dense green forest. On the crust the cool, calm and peaceful persona is vivid and clear however just below lies the greed and savagery of all man kind which in the biblical story says that evil was exposed through Eve when she gave into temptation and disobeyed…

Clash of Civilizations

Huntington in his Clash of Civilizations presented a very believable hypothesis. He suggested that future clashes or divisions of world power would be cultural rather than ideological and political in basis. He suggested that the differences between civilizations would be basic in the future, they would be drawn from the groups history, culture, beliefs, and most important ‘religion’. He wrote, ‘The people of different civilizations have different views on the relations between God and man, the individual and the group, the citizen and the state, parents and children, husband and wife, as well as differing views of the relative importance of rights and responsibilities, liberty and authority, equality and hierarchy. These differences are the product of centuries. They will not…

Personal Learning Profile

What technological development, during the early history we covered, do you feel was either a detriment or an enhancement for people to move away from spending all of their lives finding sustenance? The Greeks were a highly civilized society when they came up with the idea of domestication in the Neolithic era (New Stone). It enhanced there civilization and made them be able to accomplish other thing that were important. They didn’t start out that way, but thing where able to change in the Mesopotamian area. The Mesopotamia area is between two rivers the Tigris and the Euphrates. Mesopotamia was the creation of the universe with their ruler Marduk. He made things possible to achieve which made and kept the…

Modern Civilization

Modern Civilization revolves around Technology and the end goal of Technology is to remove the dirt from under the fingernails of Man and make him cultured. In fact, showing a great bias towards city dwellers, the word “Civilization” itself is derived from the Latin word “Civitas” which denotes the townsman who is more refined than his country dwelling contemporaries. But Modern culture and Civilization is characterized by a distancing from nature. The tension between the nature and technology (one of the most important basis of Modern culture prevalent in the cities) forms the basis of his celebrated essay “The Metropolis and the Mental Life”. At the outset Simmel talks about what man requires in his Life. He says “Man is…

Golden Age of Athens versus Reformation in Ancient Western Civilization

During this period the city of Athens was governed by generals. They numbered to ten in total. Citizens existed in clans and they would elect the generals each year. The political structure during this time was constituted of the magistrates, the assembly of the people and the council of Boule. Magistrates majorly formed the administration of the state of Athens. The assembly of the people was a democratic organ. It was a summon assembly that was attended by the people. It was a summon that took place 40 times a year. It functioned in designing and proposing laws and decrees. The council of Boule comprised 50 members each from the 10 clan s in the city of Athens, making a…

The Mesopotamian Dbq (Outline)

Group 1:Mesopotamia * Document 1: This document describes the story of an innocent god that shared water with animals at a watering hole. The document describes the importance of water by referencing to the herds of wild game and Enkidu. The people that have created this document have put much emphasis on water systems. * Document 2: This document covers the spectrum of the river systems and agricultural growth in Mesopotamia, Egypt, and the Indus regions using a map. * Document 3: In this document, a picture depicts reed huts in the marshes of Southern Iraq. It appears that in this area, a large, agricultural-based city does not thrive here. This document stresses that a successful river system is the…

The term Civilization

Civilizations are complex societies with cities, government, art, architecture, religion, class divisions and writing systems. To uphold an effective civilization, cultural diffusion, farming and writing with a spoken language are essential. Cultural diffusion is a key element to maintaining a complex civilization. When people from different civilizations came into contact with one another, they learned from one another. They would learn how other people from different societies did things and all their different and new inventions. They would bring this new understanding back to their cities and villages, which usually brought them back security and prosperity for the future. The transition from hunting and gathering to farming was a huge factor in a well-held civilization. This change was known as…

The Inca Empire: Project Management Legacy

The Inca Empire was one of the most extraordinary, monumental and organized civilization in America. Their domain extended from northern Ecuador to central Chile. Its capital was called Cuzco, which in Quechua means “Navel of the World”. By the time of the Spanish arrival this city had 100,000 inhabitants. Their chief god was the Sun; called “Inti”, this is also the second Peruvian currency. The foundation of the Empire was attributed to the Inca Manco Capac in the thirteenth century. The last emperor Atahualpa was executed by Francisco Pizarro in 1533 in the city of Cajamarca. The Inca emperors were able to maintain and develop its vast domain, due to the concern for the welfare and happiness of his subjects….

What Defines Humanity

Alberto Manguel writes about social classes, in his book “The City of Words” Mangel starts of by saying: “Language is our common denominator” by this, the author is trying to tell us that the human race is identified with its nationality, its culture, its tradition and everything else that separates each individual from other nationalities but at the same time resembles equality within one nation, Manguel establishes how each nation is in a constant fight to be the best, in every aspect; sports, economy, politics, religion, and such. Manguel recalls that these different cultures are always engaging in an “us” versus “the others” battle and that action is in fact the human common denominator. Discrimination takes place in this book,…

From Hunting and Gathering to Civilizations

Overview. The first human beings appeared in east Africa over two million years ago. Gradually humans developed a more erect stance and greater brain capacity. Early humans lived by hunting and gathering. The most advanced human species, Homo sapiens sapiens, migrated from Africa into the Middle East, then into Europe, Asia, Australia, and the Americas. Over time, they learned to fashion tools and weapons from stone, bone, and wood, and were, therefore, able to move away from hunting-and-gathering practices to form larger groups. The beginnings of agriculture, about 10,000 B.C.E., were based on improved tools during the New Stone Age (Neolithic). The development of agriculture was a radical change in humans’ way of life. By providing a dependable source of…

Ancient Sudan (Nubia)

Who are the Nubians? Nubians are people of northern Sudan and southern Egypt. Their history and traditions can be traced to the dawn of civilization. They settled first along the banks of the Nile from Aswan. Along the Nile, they developed one of the oldest and greatest civilizations in Africa until they lost their last kingdom five centuries ago. The Nubians remained as the main rivals to the homeland of Africa’s earliest black culture with a history that can be traced from 3800 B.C. onward through the monuments and artifacts. Ancient Nubia was a land of great natural wealth, gold mines, ebony, ivory and incense that its neighbors always prized. Sudan had remained the main homeland of Nubians through their…

The Second Greco-Persian War and the Survival of Western Civilization

The second invasion of Greece occurred during 480-479 BC when King Xerxes I of Persia set out to conquer the Greek lands for his own. This invasion was nearly in direct response to the first invasion of Greece which occurred during 492-490 BC in which King Darius I, King Xerxes I’s father, sought to conquer the Greek lands but failed. These wars, especially the second Greek and Persian war (Greco-Persian war), are significant and ultimately important in understanding the history of the Greek culture and its ties to Western civilization because, as most historians believe, had Greece been conquered by Xerxes or his father, Western civilization would never have been developed and allowed to flourish as it is seen today….

The Greek civilization

The Greek civilization is one of the most important civilizations of man, whose relevance is widely reflected in today’s modern world. Civilizations are noted for their features or characteristics, which vary vastly from one to another. While some might have made significant strides in architecture, some in art forms etc. But rarely do we ever come across a civilization that has set new standards in everything associated with it. Right from architecture, performing arts, entertainment and sports, philosophy, technology, government etc. , the Greeks have excelled. The pursuit of excellence in almost every field is evident from the achievements and ideas propagated by people of that era. Even with regard to thinking and mathematics, much of our current knowledge base…

The Fall of the Abbasid Empire

While the start of the Abbasid Empire, around 750 CE was explosive and revitalizing in nature, it couldn’t mask the unfortunate truth that a series of wealth-bloated and soft-handed caliphs were to rule the new empire. By the third caliph, al-Mahdi, the empire was already in decline; the royal harem was outrageously large, mosques were built bigger and bigger, crushing the peasant class under the weight of extreme taxation. All the while, the caliphs in their garnished palaces partied and lived in extravagant fashion with little care for their countries impending demise. As the Empire spiraled further downward, the cause became more and more evident; weak rule; the empire was crippled by this and couldn’t react to outside invasions due…

Origin of Civilization

Mark Twain once wrote, “Civilization is the limitless multiplication of unnecessary necessities. ” Today, we live in a very complex civilization; however, this was not always the case. Before televisions, cars, houses, and farming, people lived off of the land without intentionally altering it. The people of the time that Mark Twain is referring to here, were called foragers. Foraging was a successful way of life. So what changed? Complex societies and civilizations sprouted and paved a whole new way of life for generations to come. Many archaeologists, have different theories of the origins of civilizations and many of them can be tested. Not only is it important for an archaeologist to test these theories, but it is also important…

Dramatic Tension in “The Royal Hunt of the Sun”

How does Shaffer create and use dramatic tension in “The Royal Hunt of the Sun” and to what effect? The Royal Hunt of the Sun is a gripping play about the journey of the Spanish army sent to conquer Peru, and the unlikely friendships that are formed. Shaffer creates dramatic tension with a number of techniques such as the use of Martin to narrate the story to the audience, a unique and powerful use of sounds, and the use of symbolic props and duologue scenes that create dramatic irony. He also employs a number of methods to show the contrasts and similarities of religion, culture and philosophy between the Inca and Spanish armies. Shaffer initially uses Martin’s narration to foreshadow…

Mesopotamian and Harappa civilisation

The two civilisation laid their foundation on river valleys. Mesopotamian flourished on banks of Tigris and Euphrates and the Harappan civilisation made its foundation on banks of Indus valley. Today Mesopotamian civilisation is known as Kuwait and Iraq and one of the most important city war Ur and presently Harappa civilisation Pakistan, part of Afghanistan and Northern India. Important cities are Mohenjo-Daro. But Mesopotamian and harppan economies developed along the similar bases, and having comparable religious and social structures. Yet, their politics, arts and women treatment have a sharp contrast to each other. The both civilisation are politically different. Where Mesopotamians developed the first monarchy, and harppans to develop the first democracy, very less evidence has been discovered of a…

Why Rules Are Important

Any society is based on rules, laws, and regulations. Rules could not be functioned if individuals were free to do as they please. In general, societies are made of comprehensive rules in purpose to regulate the relation, life, and rights between people. Without rules societies will never become regulated and it will become chaos, and savage. Thru many centuries rules are made by human to arrange our daily act within the society that we live in. In some society the rules are partly build from people’s traditions, cultures, religions, or their historical civilizations wich are playing a huge roles in implementing rules among them. On the other hand, some society still need more rules, laws, regulation to reach the complete…

Educational psychology

From 1834, the year of emancipation of slaves in Dominica and the other British West Indian colonies to 1845, the popular education that was existent was really religious education. The concept of a state system of education in the West Indies emerged in Britain in 1833 as part of the act to emancipate slaves in British custody. Prior to that, the masses of the people had practically no formal education. In Dominica, from 1834 onwards, the British subsidized primary education through grants but basically, education was imported and promoted mainly by missionaries. The content of education was divorced from the interests and needs of the masses and the community. Emphasis was on the classics and the arts. There is little…

The Link Between Greek And Western Civilization

The Greek civilization is recognized to have been one of the foremost contributors to Western Civilization. The culture, politics, science, and educational systems of the ancient Greeks are said to have impacted the development of early Western Civilization and are thus the foundations upon which our present society is based. Many different historians, experts, and writers have tried to provide a comprehensive understanding of ancient Greek and its impact on modern society. Bruce Thornton is one of these experts and he shows in his book that the Greeks did, in fact, contribute a great deal to our civilization. When we talk about the Greek civilization, the conversation invariably goes into a discussion of their achievements. Greek philosophers were known for…

West and Gold in California

California Gold Rush revolutionized American West in every aspect of American mores and civilization prevalent at the time. The massive population influx, developmental work, annihilation of Indian communities and race relations and slavery played an important role in developing the very foundations of modern Californian society. The history of inhabitation manifests the seeking of quintessential American Dream by the early settlers though many were unable to achieve this dream. Moving West and Gold in California California Gold Rush was the life-changing phenomenon for not just the gold seekers but also everyone who left one’s belongings and decided to head to the Promised Land. The vagaries of American Dream and the difficulties ensued in the pursuance of this dream constitute a…

Cortes Discussion

1. Why is Cortes’ letter a primary source? 2. Is there any information in his letter that he did not actually observe? How do you reconcile this fact with the idea that this is a primary source? Can a document be partially primary and partially secondary? (i.e., written by someone who did not witness the events or experience the emotion?) 3. What can you infer about Cortes’ motives in writing about “the wonders of Tenochtitlan” and the Aztecs? Why did he choose to write about the topics he addressed in this letter? Who is is intended audience, and how might that have influenced the letter? 4. Using Cortes’ comments in the first two paragraphs, what assumptions can you make about the…

Mesopotamia and the Indus River Valley

Throughout the ages; societies around the world have been compared and contrasted, this is due to the growing interests of the human mind. Although the Indus River Valley was complex and exceptionally organized due to it’s agricultural opportunities, Mesopotamia serves as a more remarkable society. Known for being the ‘cradle of civilization’, Mesopotamia formed a benchmark as the most ancient highly developed society. While Mesopotamia was the most dominant society to come at such an early time, the Indus River Valley also housed an ideal location susceptible for great agricultural advancements and options for humans. It is said that the development of the Mesopotamian society began around 5300 B.C. because of the clashing of urban societies. Around 3300 B.C., the…

Greek civilization

Eros is defined as the representation of the Greek god of love, Cupid, intimate and physical love, or sexual desire (Dictionary Website, 2010). Eros had been the one of the most popular themes used in literature and arts, particularly the works from the Renaissance period and the Era of Romanticism. So often was it used as a strong bond between two beings, whether it be a heterosexual or homosexual. It captivated the interests of not only poets but also philosophers from different time periods. Two of the most distinguished icons of Greek civilization had incorporated Eros in their works; Plato in his Symposium and Sappho with her poetry. Both interpretations for Eros clashed with each other. It was quite understandable…

Occupied America

The logic of “Not just pyramids, Explorers, and Heroes.” The main purpose of this chapter is to explain the evolution of the Mesoamerica civilizations through the Preclassical and Postclassical periods, explain the evolution and impact that agriculture had during the first stages of the civilization and how that fact was the main factor of the change from nomads to sedentary and also to describe the changes in the development of the classes and differences of gender and the creation of the “cities” and urban centers. Everything explained chronologically to a better understand of the topic, evaluating every aspect of the culture, as the author says “Time represents the knowledge a people have accumulate.” (2) What the author was question I…

Effects of Agriculture

Because it was tremendously essential for survival, had a monumental impact immediately on society and continues to affect us even to this day, agriculture was the most influential development of the early civilizations. The people of the first civilizations needed agriculture because it was an easy, more efficient way of obtaining food. The early peoples had to hunt and gather their food, and, “Hunting depended on the careful observation of behavioral patterns” (Duiker, W. J. & Spielvogel, J. J. 2001). It must have been challenging to always be moving and searching, just so they could find food that day. However, deciding to stop and grow food, in one reachable convenient location, would have solved the issue of having to go…

Morality the Adventures of Huckleberry Finn

For example, throughout the novel “Huckleberry Finn “, Mark Twain depicts society as a structure that has become little more than a collection of degraded rules and precepts that defy logic. This faulty logic manifests itself early, when the new judge in town allows Pap to keep custody of Huck. “The law backs that Judge Thatcher up and helps him to keep me out o’ my property.” The judge privileges Pap’s “rights” to his son over Huck’s welfare. Clearly, this decision comments on a system that puts a white man’s rights to his “property”–his slaves–over the welfare and freedom of a black man. Whereas a reader in the 1880s might have overlooked the moral absurdity of giving a man custody…