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Chinese philosophy Essay Topics & Paper Examples

Daoism and Confucianism

Daoism and Confucianism are two of China’s oldest and most pervasive philosophies. They arose during the same period in Chinese history, called the Hundred Schools of Thought, a time often marred by unrest and feudal strife. Both philosophies reflect this, as their overarching goals are to seek order and harmony in one’s life, relationship with society, and the universe. Confucianism is a philosophy originated by the Chinese philosopher, Confucius, which teaches that logic and reason can solve all human problems, and rejects excessive emotion and superstition. Confucianism also teaches that following the traditions of early Chinese culture is the best way to organize society. Traditional ritual, music and poetry are also seen as important tools in maintaining societal harmony. Confucius…

Religion in Ancient China

The earliest information found about religion in ancient China is during the Shang Dynasty and so religion in the Xia dynasty remains unknown. Religious beliefs and rituals were prominent during the Shang Dynasty. The most significant deity was Shang Ti, Ti meaning ‘Deity Above’ or the ‘Lord on High’. He ruled as a supreme god over all the other gods and spirits. The gods and spirits were believed to symbolize objects found in nature; the sun, the moon, the wind, the rain, everything from mountains and rivers to the stars in the night sky. Ti is believed to have punished those who disobeyed or offended him and rewarded those who pleased him. It is said that Ti formed a noble…

Zhou Dynasty’s Society

The Bachelor of Science in Pharmacy is a four-year college degree intended for people who wants to have a career in the various fields of the pharmaceutical industry. The study of pharmacy focuses on the identification, discovery, isolation, synthesis, and formulation of biologically active compounds for clinical use. The BS Pharmacy curriculum comprises of 72-units of CHED-mandated general education courses, 30-units essential core subjects, and 90-units professional pharmacy courses presented thru lectures and laboratory classes. The program requires Thesis and Research Project in addition to the Practicum in the three major pharmaceutical areas of internship, namely the community, hospital and manufacturing. Graduates of BS in Pharmacy are provided with a broad spectrum of training that may lead to employment in a…

Confucianism VS Daoism

Confucianism and Daoism are two of the most influential schools of thought in ancient China. Both are not only ways of thinking, but ways of life. They are not religions: they have no teaching of worship of gods, or the afterlife; each philosophy focuses on the individual and their behavior. Confucianism and Daoism are often considered polar opposites for several reasons, although they have a few similarities. Confucianism has a core of morality, ethics, and activism. It encourages social harmony and mutual respect. Confucianists sought to perfect their character by living a virtuous life and seeking goodness. They valued ethics, respect for elders, and propriety. Confucius, the originator of Confucian thought, believed political order would be found by the proper…

Confucianism, Legalism, Daosim

China was built by three ancient philosophies. Each has its own meanings; each had its own ways of seeing the nature of human beings, society and the universe. These three philosophies were Legalism, Confucianism and Daoism. Although they each have many differences their purpose is the same, to make society better, to end conflict. Confucius started Confucianism. He felt that if rulers were honest and children respected their parents everything would fall into place. Human nature was considered neutral and it was what you did that determined whether it was good or bad, each person had a role that they must follow. Freethinking was encouraged. Legalisms approach was much more forceful, books were burnt and freethinking was discouraged. People were…

His 103 Disscusion 1

The Daoism (Taoism) Legalism and the Confucianism all came from the same belief of peace and accord in the society of the Chinese. Legalism wanted a strong political body for a solution of the troubles in contemporartt society. But Confucianism and Daoism (Taoism) a strong political entity was not what they had in mind. They were opposed to that idea. Whereas legalism had believed with having striated laws and also punishments were preconditions in having a strong and successful government which meaning it would lead to having peace and prosperity throughout the whole society. Daoism (Taoism) and Confucianism were much different than legalism because they saw human nature as good morals. Daoism (Taoism) disagreed with the doctrines of legalism. They believed…

Confucianism and Taoism: a Comparative Study

Often described as the two sides of the coin, Confucianism and Taoism are being practiced, today, by over 225 million people and have existed for more than 2400 years in East Asian culture1. Despite the many differences in both traditions, however, we may also find a lot of similarities. Whether in government application or through abstract, immaterial ideals, we find that the two-sided coin can sometimes land on its side. To begin any comparison between the two traditions, one must understand the historical background of each. Firstly, Confucius was born during a period of struggle and political unrest; this was a period that spanned around three centuries resulting from the Chinese states’ continual desire to expand their borders2. Similarly, Zhuangzi…

Philosophical Outlook of Ancient China

The Hundred Schools of Thought was an era of great cultural and intellectual expansion in China that lasted from 770 to 222 BCE. In around 500 BCE, after the Zhou state weakened and China moved in to the period of warring states, the classic period of Chinese philosophy, known as the Golden Age, began. This period saw the rise of numerous Chinese philosophers and academics. Many of the great Chinese texts have intensely enriched Chinese lifestyles and social awareness up to the present day. However, of the many schools founded at this time and during the subsequent Warring States Period, the three most influential ones were Legalism, Taoism, and Confucianism. Legalism, the political philosophy concerned with the most effective way…

The Unity of Heaven and Human

Your assignment is to write a paper that compares and contrasts the ideas of any two of the following three philosophers: Confucius (aka Kongzi), Mozi, Zhuangzi. In your comments, you should try to adopt the perspective of one of these three thinkers. For example, if you are comparing Confucius and Zhuangzi you might present Zhuangzi’s perspective on Confucius: Which of his ideas are similar to your own and therefore worthy of praise? Which ideas are different from your own and therefore reprehensible? Six different permutations are possible: Confucius on Mozi Mozi on Confucius Zhuangzi on Mozi Mozi on Zhuangzi Zhuangzi on Confucius Confucius on Zhuangzi The paper should be 3 pages (typed, double-spaced, with no unusually sized type fonts). It…

Confucianism and Daoism

The idea of the religion of Confucianism was developed by the Chinese philosopher Confucius. The idea of Confucianism is teaching a person to be able to have the power to make the most logical decisions on their own. It teaches its followers a greater meaning for life which then helps them to better understand death. As a religion it is a different kind of religion. It is taught to followers that there should be harmony between the ancestors, humanity and Heaven, and the secular and the sacred. For me, the idea of Daoism is much easier to understand. A way to explain Daoism is fallowing the way. The way is actually translated into the idea of Dao. Fallowing the way…

Schools of Thought

THERE WERE THREE MAJOR PHILOSOPHIES THAT EXISTED IN ANCIENT CHINESE TIMES; LEGALISM, DAOISM, AND CONFUCIANISM. EACH PHILOSOPHY HAD DIFFERENT WAYS OF THINKING/BELIEFS THAT INFLUENCED THEIR FOLLOWERS’ WAYS OF LIFE. ALTHOUGH THESE SCHOOLS OF THOUGHT MAY HAVE BEEN SUCCESSFUL IN ANCIENT CHINESE TIMES, WOULD THEY SUCCEED IN A DEMOCRATIC GOVERNMENT IN TODAY’S SOCIETY? ONE SCHOOL OF THOUGHT THAT WOULD NOT FLOURISH IN TODAY’S WORLD IS LEGALISM, FOUNDED BY HAN FEIZI. LEGALIST IDEAS WERE BUILT AROUND THE BELIEF THAT ONLY STRICT LAWS ENFORCED BY A POWERFUL RULER WOULD ENSURE ORDER IN SOCIETY, AND THAT “THE RULER ALONE POSSESSES POWER”. IT IS EVIDENT AS TO WHY THESE PRINCIPLES WOULD NOT WORK IN A DEMOCRATIC GOVERNMENT BECAUSE A DEMOCRACY IS A GOVERNMENT BY THE PEOPLE…

Neo-Confucianism

Throughout China’s history, the philosophy bestowed by Confucius has provided a life structure for the people of China. The works of this great philosopher have managed to entwine with the people, and has survived the countless rise and fall of multiple dynasties. This is not to say the acceptance of the philosophies has been stagnant. On the contrary, along the way the Confusion philosophies have been shaped, molded and influenced by other religions and thought processes, which have imposed an impact on the overall beliefs and dictates of Confucianism. The creation of this combination of ideas and religions as it built upon the Confucian base is known as neo-Confucianism. Although most of neo-Confucianism is derived from the original works of…

Neo-Confucianism

Neo-Confucianism arose in China during the Song Dynasty as a vehicle to reapply Confucian teachings and morality to an era in which Buddhist and Daoist followers were all but competing with Confucianism. Such competition found Confucianism becoming more and more related to the state as an official religion, reducing the true existence of Confucianism as predicated by Kung T’zu’s own canonical texts. The revival of Confucian thought during this dynasty lead for replacement of a militaristically centered society academia and cultural achievements, changing the view of Chinese history and the historian as well as leadership in the government as both began to take on the characteristics of Confucian practices such as The Way. The transformation of the view of history…

Yin and yang

Do not let the word macrobiotics scare you. The word simply means “long life. ” The word macrobiotic is first found in German literature written by a scholar named Christophe Wilhelm Von Hufeland in 1776. Most people have the misconception that macrobiotics is just another diet. Macrobiotics is a dietary practice based on the Chinese philosophy of balancing yin and yang (see yin-yang). According to macrobiotics. (2006). In Britannica Concise Encyclopedia, macrobiotics was first articulated in Asia in the 1930s and swept Europe and the U. S. in the late 1960s. Adherents maintain that not only can the quality of life be enhanced but that serious ailments such as cancer can be healed; critics counter that uninformed attempts to practice…

Comparing and Contrasting Confucianism and Legalism

Confucius once said, “The more man meditates upon good thoughts, the better will be his world and the world at large. ” Amidst the chaos of political instability and constant warring of the Zhou era, many philosophers arose that impacted China in the fields of politics, religion, and philosophy. Two of these philosophers were Confucius, who lived from 551 to 479 B. C. E. , and Han Feizi, who lived around 233 B. C. E. These two created the Confucianism and Legalism that significantly changed the society is still in use in modern China. Confucianism became the dominant way of thinking and the later philosophy of Legalism gained immense recognition as well. Each party had their own proposals for creating…

World Religion

Confucianism and Daoism are two of the most influential schools of thought in ancient China. Both are not only ways of thinking, but ways of life. They are not religions: they have no teaching of worship of gods, or the afterlife; each philosophy focuses on the individual and their behavior. Confucianism and Daoism are often considered polar opposites for several reasons, although they have a few similarities. Confucianism has a core of morality, ethics, and activism. It encourages social harmony and mutual respect. Confucianists sought to perfect their character by living a virtuous life and seeking goodness. They valued ethics, respect for elders, and propriety. Confucius, the originator of Confucian thought, believed political order would be found by the proper…

Confucianism, Legalism, and Daoism Comparison

Confucianism, Legalism, and Daoism are the three main philosophies of the Chinese people. They have been the most influential and widely taught philosophies of the Chinese for many centuries. This essay will reveal the history of each philosophy’s origin, and will reveal the main characteristics of each respected area. Confucianism began as the thoughts and ideas of a man named Confucius who lived at around 500 B. C. It is interesting to note this was around the same time Buddha was supposedly alive. Confucian was not a prophet, and had little to say about gods, death, or the afterlife. He developed instead three concepts of living that formed the basis of his philosophy. First, every person should accept an assigned…

Daoism and Confucnaism Notes

Daoism is the Pinyin transliteration Taoism was the earlier Wade-Giles transcription of the same word. The sacred rituals are called li. They are essential because the ancestors will help their descendents, if treated with proper respect, or cause trouble if ignored. They beleive in nature spirits such as plants, animals, rivers, stones, mountains, stars, all parts of the natural world are vitalized by cosmic energy personified and honored as deities. Shangdi (Shang Ti) is the Lord-on-High, ruler of the universe, the supreme ancestor of the Chinese. He was a spiritual being. Deities governing aspects of the cosmos and the local enviroment are subordinate to him. This deity is conceived as masculine and closely involved in human affairs, but not a…

Midterm Essay

As a ruler in the Warring States period, my kingdom’s survival has the utmost importance. Therefore, choosing a philosophy to base my government upon is a crucial decision. Legalism, Confucianism, Mohism, and Daoism are all great philosophies but for my state, I choose to implement Legalism. Legalism supports a rigid system based on publicized laws that deals out punishments and rewards accordingly. Legalism also emphasis an adherence to laws and customs, obedience to the ruler and receiving influential positions based on merit. Legalism as a national strategy of governance is crucial in times of chaos and constant fighting. For my kingdom I demand absolute obedience from my subjects. I want officials who are qualified by my side to help me make…

Taoism Vs Confucianism

The “Tao Te Ching” and “The Analects” are collections of philosophical aphorisms that express universal truths about life. They each tend to articulate a series of ideologies that diversify a reader’s intellect through behavioral guidelines that are needed within a society. It was by these strict guidelines that the ancient masters, Confucius and Lao Tzu, organized themselves into chronic prosperity while existing in the harsh calamities that the real world provides. Early Taoists and Confucianists both believed that Tao was the force that controlled the universe. However, Taoists differed from Confucianists in that they did not ascribe human moral qualities to the Tao. This is just one of the many conflictions that exist between the two. As each author voices…

Comparative Between Confucius and Daoism

Conflict Resolution & Negotiation (Volume 2011 Issue 4)111 Please cite as Low K. C. P. (2011) ‘Confucianism Versus Taoism’, Conflict Resolution & Negotiation Journal, Volume 2011, Issue 4, p. 111 – 127 Confucianism Versus Taoism Prof. Dr. Patrick Low Kim Cheng Ph. D. & Chartered Marketer, Certified MBTI Administrator, & Certified Behavioral Consultant/ Universiti Brunei Darussalam; Associate, University of South Australia About the Author Prof. Dr. Patrick Low Kim Cheng, Ph. D. (South Australia), Chartered Marketer, Certified MBTI Administrator, & Certified Behavioral Consultant (IML, USA), brings with him more than 20 years of combined experience from sectors as diverse as the electronics, civil service, academia, banking, human resource development and consulting. His MNC and local corporate clients from ASEAN, Sri…

Studying the Philosophical Thoughts

1. Generalizing the conditions which form the philosophical thoughts of Chuang Tzu. Regarding the socio-economic conditions: Chuang Tzu lived in the Warring States Period. This period witnessed the increasing popularity of iron tools marked a revolutionary innovation of production tools and the development of social productive. Agriculture, industry and economy also developed during the Warring States Period. Feudal relations of production gradually formed, consequently when the Warring States period started, it marked the end of mode at the slavery which following a pattern of the Orient. The era of Warring States is trouble times. The great transformation of all aspects in this period has left many stamps which affect every fields of life and set out the philosophical problems for…

The Geography of Thought

Thought is defined by Webster’s Dictionary as “an idea or opinion produced by thinking or occurring suddenly in the mind. ” Thought can be influenced by different geographic locations, cultures, customs, religions and beliefs. On opposite sides of the world geographically there are advantages thinking like both an Easterner and Westerner. Eastern thinking is founded on many different principles than Western thinking. Differences in every aspect of life can be found among these civilizations. For instance, education varies differently between both these countries. In Eastern thought education is viewed as expanding ones knowledge and curiosity for self-fulfillment. To educate oneself is for own personal growth and knowledge unlike the Greeks. For example, Greek culture rules that through education, power and wealth…

Review Asian 104

I. Review questions for short-answer questions 1. Briefly characterize the following terms: a. Hexagram-The I Ching book consists of 64 hexagrams. [2] [3] A hexagram is a figure composed of six stacked horizontal lines ( ? yao), where each line is either Yang (an unbroken, or solid line), or Yin (broken, an open line with a gap in the center). The hexagram lines are traditionally counted from the bottom up, so the lowest line is considered line one while the top line is line six. Hexagrams are formed by combining the original eight trigrams in different combinations. Each hexagram is accompanied with a description, often cryptic, akin to parables. Each line in every hexagram is also given a similar description….

What Are the Qualities That an Ideal Person Should Cultivate, Possess

1. Introduction In this paper, I will discuss what qualities should be cultivated, possessed, and practiced for an ideal person according to Confucius. Although Confucius regards humanness, wisdom, and courage as the basic threefold towards being a junzi (superior man/ideal person, ?? ), there has been an ongoing disagreement among scholars regarding the qualities that are needed to become an ideal person or a junzi. I shall accomplish my purpose by first providing a basic background of information on the topic, then identifying two conflicting interpretations of the qualities that are required by Hosung Ahn and Ha Poong Kim, adding my own critical response, and lastly offering my resolution using Antonio S. Cua’s interpretation on the topic. I will use…

Major Differencies Between Eastern

Western philosophy has its roots in Athens, Rome and Judeo­Christianity while Eastern philosophy is derived from Confucianism, Taoism and Mahayana Buddhism. As Greek and Latin are to Western civilisation, so classical Chinese is to East Asian civilisation. I will focus on four major differences between Eastern and Western philosophies. 1. Western Individualism and Eastern Collectivism In the Greco? Roman tradition, the image of Prometheus powerfully illustrates the struggle for individual freedom. Prometheus had gone against Zeus, the all powerful god who ruled the sky from Mt. Olympus. Prometheus annoyed Zeus by creating human beings. To protect the human beings from Zeus, he stole fire from Hephaestos, the blackmith god and gave it to the human beings. This angered Zeus to…

Pre-Han Classical Chinese Thought: Confucianism and Daoism

1. Confucianism is a system of ideological beliefs and ethical philosophy that is developed from the teachings and thoughts of ancient Chinese teacher Confucius. Confucianism originated during the Spring and Autumn period (770 to 476 BC). Confucius emphasized the morality of an individual and the government, the importance of how social relationships should be and how it affects social order and lastly, the justification and earnestness of people. Some of Confucius’ main goals and hopes centralized on China’s period of chaos and turmoil which Confucius believed could be resolved by establishing a form of social order that could promote harmony among society. He also stressed the importance of knowledge to one’s self because this will create a refinement of one’s…

China’s Three Philosophies

China has one of the longest histories in ancient world history. As civilization developed, so did ideas about religion, knowledge, values, society, and the world. Three of the most famous ones were the Confucianism, Legalism, and Daoism. There are many different and similar ideas in these three philosophies. Confucianism has many characteristics and ideas for life and social order. It came from the teachings of a Chinese philosopher named Confucius, or Kongzi. His students recorded all his teachings in a book called the Analects, which mainly focused on social and family relationships (4). Confucius believed that respect for others was necessary for peace within society. Confucius thought that human nature is morally neutral, and it is peoples’ choices in their…

Answers to A world of ideas

According to Plato, in the allegory, the prisoners were chained in a cave, unable to turn their heads. All they can see is the wall of the cave, which with shadows on it. Behind the prisoners, several people waving some object in front of the fire, casting shadows on the wall for the prisoners to see. The prisoners would spend their whole lives there, and therefore, it’s naturally for them to mistake the appearance of the reality. If somebody go the cave, unchain one of the prisoners, dragging him to the light, the prisoner would first feel uncomfortable about everything he see; but as time passed by, he look in retrospect, he would felicitate himself on the change, and pity…