The article by Susan M. Tancock focuses its attention to the needs of special students. These students are considered poor readers. They are usually behind in reading and writing skills when compared to their classmates (peers). The special instruction that these students receive ordinarily involves the recognition of identifying sounds of letters and words instead of the construction of their meaning within the context of the text or story. In the article we are told the poor readers are usually asked to read aloud more often than other more skilled readers.
Also, their teachers interrupt their reading instead of encouraging them towards a self monitoring approach to their reading. Tancock stresses the importance of being sensitive to certain ideals when tutoring young children who have reading difficulties. First of all, she feels it is of utmost importance that the tutor should truly believe that their tutee can and will become a good reader and writer. Secondly, she states that the tutee needs predictable material to help encourage successful reading habits.
To accomplish this task it is best if the tutor uses quality children=s books written by well-known authors. Children can be encouraged to Aread like a writer@ by using themes that are built around the child=s personal interests. This will provide the student with a more in depth involvement with the reading process. Tutors must build lessons around the child=s strengths to build confidence within the child for future reading tasks. The students also need to be encouraged to make predictions in their reading to help develop them into risk takers.
In the lesson with Gayla and Chase the author described how Gayla first sets out familiar reading material (books) for Chase to choose from so that he could read aloud. Because Chase is already familiar with these books and has probably read them in the past, it will enable him to be become confident in guessing when it comes to something difficult for him to read. By Gayla=s reminding him to read aloud so that it sounds interesting and stopping him to praise his good efforts, will involve him more in the context of the meaning of his reading efforts.
One particular technique that Gayla used, was to have Chase emulate her as she reads to him. This helped to emphasize the diction and inflection for Chase. One of Chase’s books of choice related to his background knowledge of fishing and this was of great help for him to be able to recall prior knowledge when he read. Before he began reading Gayla engaged him in a conversation about his past experiences with fishing. Gayla understood this would allow Chase to explore his mind and make connections to his fishing encounters.
She wanted Chase to learn how to find cues for helping himself to make guesses that would eventually lead him out of difficult spots in his reading. Gayla also from time to time used Directed Reading B Thinking Activity (DR — TA). In this illustration, Chase made guesses during reading and then by his continued reading he could then discover whether his guesses were correct or incorrect. This practice can eventually help a student to apply self-help strategies when reading in the future. Chase was also asked to recall times of difficulty and to discuss ways in which he used to solve those reading problems.
Gayla then stimulated his thinking by asking him key questions. During the writing parts of the lesson, Chase was able to apply the brainstorming technique when planning what he was going to write about. After brainstorming Gayla then helped him sort his writing by relating it to his prior reading involvement. The finished writing project can also serve as a tool for future successful reading assignment because it is the student=s creation from his own personal relationship with the topic. Chase was then asked to sort some words that he had some difficulty with during his reading and writing session.
In this particular student=s case he was asked to sort words beginning with s and sh. After he was done sorting he was asked to write down the few words so that he could make the connection with reading and writing. Finally Gayla read a book she had selected to read to Chase. Even though she had chosen the book, she had still remained within the theme that had been set. But the reading Gayla chose was nevertheless a little bit more difficult. After the lesson was over Chase then chose a book to take home to read to his family.
Tancock states, Afluency suffers when children focus their attention more on the details of print than the meaning of the text; thus comprehension suffers too. @ Consequently as a tutor, it should be our responsibility to relieve the unneeded pressures of the details on the printed page, and to allow the child to learn with as much ease as possible the meaning of the text. Bibliography Tancock, Susan M. AA Literacy Lesson Framework for Children with Reading Problems@ The Readind Teacher, Volume 48. No. 2 Oct. 1994 Word Count: 826ю
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