E1.Identify 5 pieces of current legislation and E2. Describe how each legislation will influence working practices in the setting. The Human Rights Act 1998 is broken down into 5 key principles which are; Fairness, Respect, autonomy, dignity and equality. Equality would influence working principles because the children would be treated fairly by having their individual needs met to ensure the same outcome is achieved as the other children. Settings can maintain fairness and respect by having the practitioners in the setting following the same policies and procedures. This would also avoid conflict between staff and would not confuse the children with knowing their expectations. Another way settings can have respect in the setting could be by following parent’s preferences such as their food preferences for their child. My current placement follows parent’s preferences by having meals that are suitable for children without specific food preferences and set meals to meet cultural and health needs. Settings can promote autonomy by encouraging children to build on their life and social skills.
This can be done by the setting providing games such as a simple board game where the children have to choose their game piece and where they have to turn take. This would also build on autonomy because it would teach children how to share and how to treat other children or people with a positive attitude. For an example if a child is an only child, they may not know how to share with other children, so playing a game that engages their interest would gradually teach the child how to build on his turn taking skills and how to interact positively with other children. In the setting, dignity can be maintained by removing situations where a child may feel embarrassed or ashamed. If a child wets their selves, the practitioner in the setting should take the child into the bathroom and change them. The practitioners shouldn’t draw the other children’s attention to the child who has had an accident. The child would need some comfort and reassurance as this situation is almost always very embarrassing and distressing. The Childcare Act 2006 focuses on adult to child ratios, qualification levels of staff and types of drinks and snacks available for the children and follows the early year’s foundation stage framework.
This would influence working practices because it helps to keep the children healthy. This would influence working practices because it helps to keep the children healthy. Settings can follow the Childcare Act 2006 focuses by providing fruit, milk and water at snack time. This can also be done by having playtime outside so that the children would get vitamin D and fresh air. Also the settings would provide meals with nutrition and are aware of dietary and cultural needs. The children act 1989 and 2004 aims to protect children by working in partnership with parents and by the every child matters which have five main principles: Be healthy, Stay Safe, Enjoy and achieve through learning, achieve economic well-being and make a positive contribution to society.
The Enjoy and achieve through learning will influence practice because it allows practitioners to cater for each child’s needs whilst ensuring that the children are enjoying what they are doing or learning. The Equality act 2010 has been simplified from 9 separate acts into 1 act. The main is to end all forms of discrimination. The protected characteristic of disability will help to influence practice as this will help practitioners be able to differentiate activities and to re-create the same experience using other methods or activities.
The health and safety at work legislation is about keeping yourself and others safe. This will influence practice because it will ensure the utmost safety for both the children and staff of the setting. This can be done by having regular risk assessments and by finding a solution to any hazards. For an example, if there is spilt water, a staff member should mop it up as soon as possible to avoid staff or children slipping and being injured. E3. Describe how policies and procedures will help safeguard children. One policy could be the safeguarding policy. The safeguarding procedure helps to protect children because the setting would have a safe recruitment method to ensure that all staff are suitable to work with children or are qualified to work with children legally. For an example, before I could start my placement and working with the children, I had to show my CRB check to my nursery’s placement officer.
CRB checks helps to safeguard children because it would prevent anyone with a serious criminal offence or someone who could be a danger to children from working with them there for protecting the children from being mistreated or harmed. Another part of the safeguarding procedure that would safeguard children would be to have a designated person who has a clear and defined role and responsibility in regards to child protection. Having a designated person would help safeguard children because they would be the person the practitioners should go to if there are concerns about a child’s safety or welfare concerns about the actions of a staff member. This would safeguard children as the designated person would be able to decide what actions need to be done in order to resume the child’s welfare or to decide what the disciplinary action is for the staff that has had the allegation made towards them.
To avoid this, all staff should have regular child protection training. A separate policy could be the behaviour management policy. This policy would help safeguard children as it helps children to think about their actions and the consequences they may cause. When a child has behaved in an unwanted behaviour, the disciplinary guidelines should be taken. The disciplinary guidelines are Give verbal warning, Move the child away from the area and time out if the first two stages don’t work.
The above verbal behaviour management methods should always only be used instead of physical contact. However, physical contact should only be used if you need to restrain a child if they are causing harm to their selves, other children and people or are damaging the settings property. It would help safeguard children because it would reduce the risk of the children being physically hurt and would maintain a safe learning and play environment. It is important that the setting outlines the behaviour because management procedures because it will give consistency to the children as the practitioner within the setting will follow the same set of rules enabling children to know the rules and expectations clearly.
E4. Describe how the policies and procedures promote fair, Just and inclusive strategies. A procedure that promotes fair, just an inclusive strategy is adapting resources to meet children’s needs. This can be done by having a range of equipment that helps children and their individual needs. This can be done by providing a range of different sized paint brushes and sponges for an example. This would allow children to develop their creative skills and interests whilst being able to develop their fine motor skills. A policy that promotes fair, just and inclusive strategy is the equal opportunities policy. This policy helps to include children because everyone in the setting has the right to be included in everything the setting does and every child has the right to education and developing their skills. Equal opportunities policy will also help children to feel valued and have their progress and achievements celebrated.
This can be done by displaying children’s artwork, creations and other outstanding work on a display board for all parents and staff to see. Another procedure that promotes fair, just and inclusive strategy is by showing awareness of different cultures and life styles. This can be done by having related activities or circle time celebrating different cultures, religions, life styles and things that challenge normal expectations. For an example; ‘all nurses are female’. This is inclusive practice because it involves every child’s cultural preferences and builds on children’s knowledge and understanding about the world we live in. Another policy that promotes fair, just and inclusive strategy is the Special Education Needs (SEN) policy. This policy allows every child to have the same care, attention and consideration as any other child in the setting, regardless of their disability or background.
The policy states that every setting should have a SENCO worker and responsibility in adapting and adjusting the settings environment to help children have the same experience in the setting whilst having their individual needs met. This can be done by having braille books for children with a sight impairment or provide easy access in the building for wheel chair users. E5.Describe two strategies which can be used to empower children to develop independence and self-reliance One strategy that could empower children to become independent and self-reliant could be by having circle time regularly. Circle time should allow children to express their thoughts and feelings with the security of being listened to. Another strategy that would enable children to be independent and self-reliant would be to take part in food preparations such as choosing what fruit they’d like for snack time and cutting the fruit themselves.
E6. Give examples of how settings may prepare children for transfer or transitions “transitions into reception classes was at best abrupt and worst traumatic” (Scott,(2005),P21) One way settings can prepare children for transfer or transitions could be by the child’s key worker taking the child to open days or visits. This would allow the child to familiarize their selves with the new teachers or key people who would be working with them as this would also make the child feel comfortable with going to the setting as they know somebody who they can talk to.
Another way setting can prepare children for transitions could be by having learning partners or mentors who are older children from the setting where some of the children may be moving up to. This would help children to build relationships so that they feel confident in moving up to the setting because they’d know another child there. Final ways setting can help prepare children for transitions could be by having individual transition plans for each child. The setting would need to “make time to share previous information” (Scott,(2005),P21) to the setting that the child is transferring to because this would allow the teachers to cater and plan for the child’s needs and interests. D1. Explain the key issues relating to the practice which supports children to prepare for transitions One key issue relating to supporting children through transitions when starting nursery could be to follow a settling in procedure. The Settling in procedure often involves having the parent and child having a visit before the child’s official starting date. Having a visit before the child’s starting date will help the child to become more familiar with the setting. In time the child should feel more comfortable with going to the setting.
The settling procedure also involves working in partnership with the parents. If the child sees the parent interacting with the staff members, it is more likely that the child will feel secure in the setting. Another key issue relating to supporting children through transitions when starting primary school would be to create a time where the children are involved. For an example, an activity could be to have a show and tell circle time, where the child brings in something from the weekend or something to do with the set topic and talks about it. This would help a child to settle in a primary school because it would give the child a chance to be involved with the class and have their discussions listened to. A third key issue relating to supporting children through transitions when starting nursery would be to find out what the child’s favourite toys are and put them out for the child to play with when they come into nursery. Also, to make the child feel welcomed, the practitioner should also provide a range of appropriate activities for the children and always give the child an opportunity for them to participate in the activities as much or as little as they like.
An alternative key issue relating to supporting children through transitions when starting primary school would be to work in partnership with parents. This can be done by having notice boards around the school which has features such as “most improved child”, “Little stars” (Where children are placed here for good work or for doing something kind etc…) and put the child who is starting in the primary school on the notice board. This would make the child and parent feel proud and would give the child a sense of achievement which hopefully would make the child want to enjoy and participate in the school more. An alternative key issue relating to supporting children through transitions when starting nursery could be by providing opportunities for the child to express their feelings.
This can be done by having regular one to ones with the child and their key worker, Having areas for the children to independently draw and write in addition to having “End of the day” circle time where the children have the freedom to say what they liked about the day or what they didn’t like. This will help the practitioners in the setting know what the children really engage in and which activities they don’t like to participate in. Also It would help the practitioners learn more about the child who is starting in the nursery as it will help the practitioners provide more activities that the child is interested in. Hopefully in time, this will help the child to enjoy nursery more. A final key issue relating to supporting children through transitions when starting primary school would be to help the child develop self-help skills.
This can be done by encouraging the child to take responsibility for their selves, such as putting on their coats or helping to tidy up the classroom. This would help the child settle in nursery because this give the child a sense of accomplishment and would also build on their self-esteem with the thought of “I can do that” and being able to try new things. Also helping to build on the child’s self-help skills will also help to “practice their large and small motor skills” (http://www.extension.org) C1.Evaluate one theoretical perspective which supports the development of strategies for empowering children I have chosen the constructivist theory. The theoretical perspective links in with strategies that empower children because it helps children become self-reliant.
This theory also influences practice because it helps the child care practitioners to assist the children build on vital life skills such as making decisions and communicating. For an example, at my placement during snack time, the children have a choice of milk or water. The children either has to point to or say the drink they’d like to have. This encourages children to language and encourages them to start to take responsibly for their own wellbeing. This theory also influences practice because it helps the childcare practitioners to define children who has specific needs or children who needs extra support as they may not be developing in the developmental areas as they should.
The good element to this theory is that children learn to build on the child’s life skills such as becoming more self-reliant. The theory is also good because play is important as it lets children use imagination and responsibility of the child’s learning. It also helps to build on the child’s fine and gross motor skills.
However, the bad points about this theory are that children develop little without an adult although staff shouldn’t allow the children to be too attached to them as the children wouldn’t interact very well with children their age as well as giving children adequate help and support so that the child can learn to be self-reliant so that in the future they, they would be able to achieve more without much support from the adult.
The theory can be improved by ensuring that the staff should try and make sure that the sessions within the setting are 50% adult led and 50% child led as this would help the children to form knowledge and understanding of the world because of accurate information being shared by the childcare practitioner and will allow the children to take an active role in choosing what they’d like to learn. For an example, a child may choose to play with toy animals. To a person, the child is just playing but the child could actually be learning about the different types and sub-species of animals in a basic and simple form. In addition to this, having a balanced adult and child led setting will help children to get an equal opportunity to interact with both adult and children.
E7.Exaplain the cause and effects of discrimination on children B1.Discuss how the causes and effects of discrimination may affect practice in the setting. The staff attitudes and values can affect the atmosphere because the childcare practitioners may unintentionally teach children that it is okay to discriminate people. For an example, if a member of staff said “all ginger children are violent and aggressive”, this could influence children because it may make the children tease or leave out other children who have ginger hair during play time. It also may affect the way the practitioners work and teach because the practitioners might interact with a group of children and leave out a child because of their views. This affects the children because it “children can quickly pick up the signs given out and they can sense if there is tension” in addition to making the child feel undervalued and not accepted which can make the child withdraw from activities and communicating with other adults and children or could trigger bad behaviour. Settings should show respect for the parents and families by respecting the parents or families’ choices and requests within reason as this would show inclusion.
For an example, if a parent prefers their child to be vegetarian the setting should provide vegetarian food whereas if a parent asks for a child not to play with a toy/or do an activity, the staff should challenge it every child has the right to have an equal opportunity. This can affect the practice within the setting because the practitioners may have a stereotypical view about children such as girls should wear dresses and play in the home corner whereas boys should only play with construction activities. This affects the child because it would make the child feel like they are not unique as they may become fearful of doing new activities as they have been told off or been influenced to only do what the adults say.
In my nursery they avoid being discriminative by providing food options suitable for a range of cultural preferences, the setting will make sure that the child will have a vegetarian meal. Discrimination can affect children because it can make them feel awkward if there aren’t many posters, books, toys or other resources that would help other children learn about diversity, different cultures and different lifestyles that may challenge the ‘norm’. For an example not all men go to work and not all women stay at home to look after the children.
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A .Reflect on the influence of legislation on working practices within early years settings. One policy could be the behavior management policy. This policy would help safeguard children as it helps children to think about their actions and the consequences they may cause. When a child has behaved in an unwanted behavior, the disciplinary guidelines should be taken. The disciplinary guidelines are Give verbal warning, Move the child away from the area and time out if the first two stages don’t work. The above verbal behavior management methods should always only be used instead of physical contact. However, physical contact should be used if you need to restrain a child if they are causing harm to their selves, other children and people or are damaging the settings property.
It is important for the setting to outline the behavior management procedure to ensure adults know the limits and boundaries so that staff doesn’t receive allegations about harming children. Another legislation that influences practices within early year settings could be the safe guarding policy. This policy ensures that all children are safe and are kept from harm or neglect. The safeguarding policy and procedure influences practices in the early years setting because it is the staff within the settings role because they take on the parental responsibility to take care of the child. There should always have a designated person who staff can go to when there are concerns for a child’s welfare or if the staff member needs advice on their role within the setting or to provide safe guarding inductions for new staff.
This influences settings because the designated person makes sure that the children’s welfare is paramount as well as ensuring that the child protection policy is updated yearly. This would help to make sure that the settings child protection policy is following the current laws about safeguarding children. [quote here] . Another role of the designated person would be to make sure the staff members within the setting has child protection training every two to three years and is recorded to make sure that the staffs is complying to the law.
(2012 ). Ways to Encourage Self-Help Skills in Children. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.extension.org/pages/26436/ways-to-encourage-self-help-skills-in-children. [Last Accessed 29 November 2012 ].