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Child developmend from birth to 19 year old Essay

1. Describe the expected pattern of children and young people’s development from birth to 19 years , to include:
a) Physical development.
b) Communication and intellectual development.
c) Social, emotional and behavioural development.

Physical development:

At 0-3 years
New born babies have little control over their bodies. Their movement depends on series of reflexes, as they get older they start to develop series of movements and actions called the ‘gross motor skills’ such as crawling, sitting, grabbing, pointing, running rolling, hopping, jumping, and so on. In their second year, children should have better ability to control their movement. In their third year, children would start to develop some ‘fine motor skills’ such as painting, colouring, and scribbling. They would enjoy looking at, and turning the pages of books. At this age they should be able to use a cup and feed themselves.

At 3-7 years.
At this stage, children will be refining the skills developed so far, they will have more confidence and more control over the fine motor skills such as cutting, writing and drawing.

At 7-12 year.
Children would start to have hobbies and interest such as sports, dance, drama, and songs. Children will continue to develop and refine many of their skills. The girls will start to show signs of early puberty from age 10-11. Puberty in boys usually start later.

At 12-16 years.
The boys will be starting to go through puberty and many of the girls would be completing their puberty and having regular periods, as a result of the different stages of puberty, the boys and girls would vary in height. At this stage most girls are taller than boys and the young people will be growing stronger.

At 16-19 years.
Young people are considered as adult, although many girls may be physically matured at this stage, the boys will continue to grow until their mid 20s.

Communication and intellectual development:

Children’s communication and intellectual development depends to a large extent on their own experiences and the opportunities they are given from the earliest age.

At 0-3 years
Babies will start to be listening to languages around them and enjoy songs and games. Some children will start to speak at 12 months, although not clearly. By 1 and 2 years, children will start to put words together and their vocabulary will increase. Between age 2 and 3, Chhildren will start to used negative and plurals in their speech, although they will make errors in their grammar when speaking.

At 3-7 years
Children become more social and have wider experiences. They ask large amount of questions and will be able to talk about things in past and future tenses with greater confidence. They will start looking for adult approval and will be starting to learn how to read.

At 7-12 years
By now most children will be fluent in speaking a language, they would be able to transfer information and think in a more abstract way. At this stage, children will be developing and refining their skills at reading and writing. They will be more able to think and discuss ideas.

At 12-16 years
Young people will be selecting and taking GSCEs and A levels, they will usually now have a clear idea about their favourite subject .this is the stage young people want to feel like they belong.

At 16-19 years
Most young people are leaving school and are thinking of the career path to take and university choices. They will be able to focus on their area of strength and be able to develop it more.

Social, emotional and behavioural development:

At 0-3 years
Children will be starting to find out about their own identities. They will form strong attachment to parents and careers. At this stage children have tantrums through frustration and will want to do things by themselves.

At 3-7 years
Children will start to play with peers and socialise using imaginative play. They will start to learn to understand the importance of boundaries and why they are necessary. They will still seek approval from adult.

At 7 -12 years
Children will be increasingly aware of what others may think of them. At this age children’s friendship becomes more settled and they have more friends.

At 12-16 years
At this age young people find themselves under the pressure of growing up and with increasing expectations from adults. Their self esteem can be very vulnerable. They will want to be independent of adult, therefore spend more time with their friends. They may look all grown up but at time they still display childish behaviour.

At 16-19 years
At this stage the young people have now in adulthood, they will still need advice and guidance from more experience adult. They will lack experience and emotional maturity in the ways they interact with others.

1.2 Describe with examples how different aspect of development can affect one another.

Example 1: sports; this is considered a physical activity. It develops the child physically and it also affects other aspects of a child’s development.

Physical development: a child that is active in sports refines their motor skills, will be strong, healthy, have an improved hand-eye coordination, normal growth and a toned body. Social, emotional and behavioural development: sports can improve a child’s relationship with other especially when it is a team sport. It builds confidence in the child. Child learns to share and take turns. Communication and intellectual development: sports can help to improve the intellect of a child. It is well known that physical exercise allows the body to pump blob to the brain thereby nourishing the brain. This improves sharpness/alertness of the mind and body. It promotes communication as child communicates among team members. It improves the child’s measurement of speed, time, quantity, how to tackle and overcome obstacles, therefore improving reasoning abilities. Over-all the child will be more confident with himself, other people and situations.

Example 2: Disability: this refers to a condition which restricts a person’s mental, sensory, or mobility functions to perform a task. Physical development: some disability can cause stunted growth or make a child not to be able to participate in some physical activities. Social, emotional and behavioural development: Because of this disability in the child, he may not make many friends; this can cause the child to be emotionally withdrawn because some children make fun of his disability. This could create lack of confidence in the child. Communication and intellectual development: due to this lack of confidence in the child because of his disability, the child becomes shy and an introvert.

Example 3: Illness: this refers to a child being sick.
Physical development: a child that is sick or sickly would not develop well physically. The child would be unable to participate in physical activities. Social, emotional and behavioural: the child would not have many friends. The child may be withdrawn and shy. Communication and intellectual development: The child may grow to lack self confidence. Since he/she is always in and out of hospitals, his/her learning in school will suffer.

2.1 describe with examples the kind of influences that affect children and young people’s development including: (a) Background
(b) Health
(c) Environment

a) Background: the background of a child affects the child in many ways. For example, most children from broken or unstable family background with lack of parental guidance, can lack self confidence, may be withdrawn from their studies and have the tendency to pick up fights in school. On the other hand, children from stable family with both parents and parental guidance, would have confidence, is more likely to be attentive in class and emotionally stable.

(b) Health: the health of a child can affect the child all aspect of development of the child. Example: a child that is suffering from some medical condition, will not be able to participate in sporting activities, therefore would not be physically strong like the others. This ill health can create lack of confidence in the child. The child is likely not to have many friends. The child may become shy and reserve.

(c) Environment: people are usually the product of the environment they grew up in. Example: when a child lives in a poor and deprived environment, this Affects the child. Statistics show that children who are from deprived background are less likely to thrive and achieve well.

2.2 Describe with examples the importance of recognising and responding to concern about children and young people’s development.

Example 1: if I feel some concern about a child’s ability to read in a certain class, in the case of primary pupils, I refer to the class teacher and also the SENCO so that they can be aware of the situation. The class teacher then can inform the school and after the parents of the pupil so that some extra help can be given to the child at home. It is important to recognise and respond to concern about child development early so that children don’t struggle through out school and later drop out.

Example 2: in the case of a young person being destructive or showing inappropriate behaviour in secondary school, I refer to the SENCO (special education needs coordinator) and also give date and example for the reasons for my concerns. This is important for the young person’s proper development and also that the other young people in the school would not be influenced by this inappropriate behaviour.

3.1 Identify the transition experienced by most children and young people.

Transition is any significant stage or experience in life of a child or young person that can affect behaviour and/or development.

1) Child being promoted to a higher class in primary school.

2) Year 6 pupil in primary school moving on to year 7 in secondary school.

3) Young people getting into college or university after their secondary school.

3.2 identify transition that only some children and young people may experience.

1) Parental separation: This is when parents become divorced or separated. One parent moves out of the family. This can destabilize children and affect their learning and development in school.

2) New sibling: when a new child is born into the family, all attention shifts to take care of the new baby and the other children may feel abandoned.

3) Bereavement: the death of a close family member can be very traumatic for a child; school should have some procedures in place to help a child deal with it.

4) Moving house: Moving can be unsettling for children, especially if they move from a distance away and had to change school and friends. Procedures should be in place to help the child settle well in school.

5) Parental change of partner: This can affect the child greatly, depending on the amount of contact they have with the absent parent and the way they relate to the new partner.

6) Change of carer: Pupil who is in care or who had a number of different homes may find it difficult to cope with change of carer.

7) Illness or injury: Pupils may be affected by ill health or injury and would have to come to terms with the change in circumstances, whether these are their own or of loved ones.

3.3 Describe with examples how transition may affect children and young people’s behaviour and development.

1) Children going through the transition of illness /injury may become quiet and withdrawn due to their illness.

2) Children who just got a new sibling in the family may become attention seeking and start to demonstrate uncharacteristic behaviour so as to gain the attention of his/her parents.

3) Children who just moved to a new location may become anxious about the new school and environment, wondering if they would be able to cope with the change in circumstance.


1. Understanding child development by Lindon Jennie

2. Supporting teaching and learning in schools- By Louise Burnham and Brenda Baker. Describe the Expected Pattern of Children and Young People’s Development from Birth to 19 Years 7.8 of 10 on the basis of 2786 Review.

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