Physical Development birth-3years The physical development for this age group is described below: Baby raises head and chest when lying on stomach and supports its upper body with arms when lying on stomach they are able to stretch their legs out and kick when lying on their stomach or back. They are able to open and shut their hands, pushing down on their legs when their feet are placed on a firm surface. At this age sucking and grasping reflexes develop the baby is able to focus and follow objects with eyes and brings hand to mouth. They begin to take swipes at dangling objects with hands their movements become stronger.
They learn to co-ordinate their movements. Most 18month olds usually walk by themselves (even though some of them might become quite wobbly or unsteady). At 3years most can use tricycle, jump, hop and climb A child grows and develops at an astonishing rate during their first 3years of growing stages. Therefore a child’s body grows stronger, in which they start to develop co-ordination movements, By the time a baby reaches their first birthday, they begin to support large amounts of weight and pulls themself up to their feet, standing this is the beginning of walking.
As a result an 18months old child will be capable to walk by themselves even though some of them might become quite wobbly or unsteady, also by the age of 3 years a child might be able to run, jump, hop, climb a climbing frame with little support and pedal a tricycle to get around easily. By the age of 2years a child may master scribbling with a large piece of crayon also by 3 years old they develop the skill to thread a large beads and also try to build a tower with eight or more blocks depending on how balanced and flexible they might be. Babies do not start their walking breakthrough with perfect pace.
There is much shuffling, toe walking. The leaning for the baby’s legs to bob out will usually correct itself by the age of 3 years old. Communication and Intellectual Development At this age they watch faces intently following moving objects recognises familiar objects and people at a distance, they start using hands and eyes in coordination smiling at the sound of familiar voice. They smiles and coo in response to others and begins to imitate movements and facial expressions e. g. Sticking out tongue and begin to babble, imitating sounds. They are able to turn their head towards the direction of sound.
This stage of development children will make development in both communication and thinking skills. Generally some children might communicate by crying by expressing their feelings that rely on reflex behaviour and simple baby language to children who can speak full sentences, ask questions and use their mind to solve problems to workout things for themselves. A 5year old can communicate using simple sentences and usually understand simple language. Social, Behavioural and Emotional Development At this age they begin to develop a social smile enjoys playing with other people and may cry when playing stops.
They become more communicative and expressive with face and body Imitating some movements and facial expressions. Throughout children’s first 3 years of life they will have advanced a lot. A baby will become totally depending on their careers or parents for all of their care. Children become confident and independent individuals by the age of 3years old. But at the age of 3 years old children will become upset when they are faced with separation situations, such as starting nursery or if left with someone else (stranger) other than family members such as a mother or a father.
Physical development 3-5 years Children of this age are able to walk in a straight line, backwards, and up and down stairs. They hop on one foot and are able to use paints, scissors, pencils, and crayons to purposefully create shapes, faces, and letters. They are likely to have bladder and bowel control and are able to dresses and undress themselves, feed themselves and do simple chores with assistance and direction. Children start to carry out more body co-ordination movements and start growing in confidence as a result and learn to control their gross motor skills more skilfully.
Between three and five years, children’s confidence grows as they start to explore and look for answers and reasons for everything in their world. They love being praised for trying and like to try everything themselves. Both three and four-year-olds are likely to be very active because they are trying to develop their running, climbing and balancing skills. They need plenty of time outdoors to be able to do this. Although many children at four are experts at climbing, they will generally only attempt what they can manage safely.
They still need supervision, however, as they sometimes can climb up an object and then are not able to get down without help. Children will start to engage in imaginary play, and pretend to be animals or fairies, or adults like mums or dads, teachers or doctors. Children by the age of 5years develop their fine motor skills as they are learning how to use their controlling skills in order to complete more complex tasks. At the age of 5 years many children can hop, jump and skip as some 5year olds will use a leading hand (either right or left).
Communication and intellectual development • Always asks “Why? ” • Uses longer sentences. • Grammar improves. • Starts to understand the difference between real and imaginary. • Listens to, and understands, short stories. • Sings simple songs and recites rhymes from memory. • Has a very active imagination. Children start to understand more challenging theory (like time) and will sense problem-solving skills to work things out for themselves. At this stage their language skills progress very rapidly as the child’s vocabulary expands and they constantly ask questions.
Generally on the whole three year olds have wide vocabulary and they can communicate using complex sentences that are most grammatically correct. At this stage children have an active imagination; they listen to, and understand short stories and might tell you their own version of the story. Children can use proper grammar as they are developing and start to ask questions such as why, where and when. They will start to use long sentences to try and explain things, they will sing and dance along to music’s or even they will recites rhymes from memory. Social, emotional and behavioural development
At this age the child is able to ever more identify and put a name to their own feelings. They are also able to use words instead of actions to express feelings. They may start to develop fears include real (the dark, animals, and thunderstorms) and imaginary (monsters, ghosts) subjects and may exaggerates and tells “tall tales”. They enjoy talking about body functions, a sense of humor develops as the begins to share and take turns. This stage of development they start to hit less but will use name calling more, will enjoy playing with other children more at this stage.
Children use pretend play more and use their imaginative and theme based to play mamas and papas. Children like to talk and will talk none stop, children enjoy playing group activities and games with other children or by themselves. At the age of three or five years children might undergo numerous changes and for most children this is the stage where they will be starting nursery and then going on to school. Therefore they will have new experiences which is challenging for children but this helps them to learn about managing their feelings and behaviour and develop social skills like sharing and playing together.
Between three and five years children are able to understand consequences of behaviour and also the concept of ‘getting in trouble’. Physical development 5-8 years At this age a child may begin to lose baby teeth is able to dress self with little assistance, they learns to skip, throws a ball overhead catches bounced balls rides a tricycle skilfully; may show interest in riding a bicycle with training wheels. This age group is able to balances on either foot for 5-10 seconds, they are able to use fork and knife well, can confidently cut with a scissors, at this stage left or right hand dominance is established.
This child walks down stairs, alternating feet without using a handrail; they are able Jumps over low objects, run, gallop, and tumble. They can skip and run on tiptoe and jump rope. They are interested in performing tricks like standing on head, performing dance steps and are capable of learning complex body coordination skills like swimming, ice or roller skating, and riding bicycles. They may be able to tie shoelaces and are able to copy simple designs and shapes. Between five and eight years children develop better co-ordination and more stamina of their gross motor skills.
At this stage children become more skilful with their controlling abilities, they also develop team games such as football as it is a very popular game with children especially with boys. This stage of development children are learning to ride a bike with stabiliser, they also have developed the sense of rhythm and enjoy dancing and movement activities. On the whole a 5 year old can tiptoe or run, they will understand time, they have mastered the alphabet, can use simple correct grammar really well and they play really with other children and they can put on their own shoes by themselves.
Most five year olds can walk backward, walk heel-to-toe without losing balance, run on toes, hop proficiently, get up without using hands, balance on alternate feet (eyes open or closed), catch a ball using hands more than arms, jump rope and jump down several steps at a time. Communication and intellectual development At this age children are able to use 5-8 words in a sentence, they might like to argue and reason; use words like “because”. They would know basic colours like red, yellow, and blue, green, orange and are able to memorize their address and phone number.
The child at this age understands that stories have a beginning, middle, and end and is able to remember stories and repeat them, they also enjoys creating and telling stories and develops an Understanding, that books are read from left to right, top to bottom. At this age a child enjoys riddles and jokes, draws pictures that represent animals, people, and objects. They enjoy tracing or copying letters and can place objects in order from shortest to tallest. They can understand and use comparative terms like big, bigger, or biggest and are able to Sorts objects by size.
They can also identify some letters of the alphabet and a few numbers (if taught). They are able to understand “more,” “less,” and “same” and can count up to 10 objects. They recognises categories eg these toys are all animals, these are all toys and understand position of an object. Their dramatic play is much more elaborate and complex and they can maintain a good attention span concentrating well. They develop curiosity and are interested in cause and effect and can understand time concepts like yesterday, today and tomorrow.
Children’s great deal of learning takes place in school, while children are in school they develop their skills in literacy such as (reading, writing, speaking and listening) and their understanding of problem solving and reasoning. By the age of eight years children use logical thought. Social, emotional and behavioural development At this stage of development children start to invent games of their own with friends with simple rules and they will organise toys and pretend play with the other children.
Children this stage start to confuse between what is a fantasy and reality and might contracted themselves. Every now and then children have fears of loud noises, the dark, animals, and on occasions of some people. This stage children might start to develop ownership or taking control of things and might not want to take turns and share things with others but doesn’t always want to. Children express anger in many different ways; they might hit another child because they were not given the chance or choice to have a turn in playing the same games and sometimes will get jealousy.
Occasionally children try to test their muscular strength and motor skills, but are not emotionally ready for competition. Children time and again might exclude other children in play only wanting to stick with best friends, children develop the use of swear words or from time to time “bathroom words” in order to gain attention from peers or teachers. They can sometimes be very bossy, likes to try new challenges and take risks, and carries on conversations with other children and adults. They want to make decisions for themselves of what they want to do or eat and dress as.
They start to develop an understanding of others feelings and might become aware of another child becoming angry or sad. Children might choose company of 1 or 2 children at a time and might even become bossy or sulky when others join in. A child might like to feel grown up; boasts about self to younger, less capable children. They begin to have a very basic understanding of right and wrong. They start to play contentedly and independently without needing a constant supervision; sometimes they take turns or shares with others but might feel a little bit hesitant.
A child might sometimes ask for permission, shows respect and understands rules, they understand and enjoys both giving and receiving, enjoys collecting things and at times needs to get away and be alone, children develop understanding of relationships and similarities and differences in other families, a child will seek an adults approval and sometimes be critical of other children and might be embarrassed by own mistakes. They are less fearful of the world than they are of toddlers because they understand the world better, has a good sense of humour, and enjoys jokes and laughter with adults and peers.
Children are becoming much more mature and independent. Children are increasingly independent, undertaking most physical care needs for themselves. They enjoy group play and co-operative activities. By this age children have increase sense of personality and gender are developed. Through improved language skills, therefore children are much more of expressing their feelings and managing their behaviour. By this stage children have established friendship and they become much more confident in social situations. Physical development 8-12
By this stage children develop their puberty for both girls and boys from the around the age of 9 and for some girls they may even start to menstruate around the age of 10 or 11 years old. But for most boys puberty starts later at around 13 or 14 years old and this can lead to some self-consciousness between boys and girls. Boys starts get to develop a deepening of their voice and will start to build up apple in their throat. Boys will begin to have growth of their testicles and penis and start to grow pubic hair, most will have spontaneous erections and wet dreams. Communication and intellectual development
At this stage children’s thinking skills is developing maturing and most ten years old can now understand abstracts ideas such as (like feelings). Consequently children’s reasoning and problem solving skills becomes more established and also most ten years old can complete quiet complicated calculations. By this stage children will start that enjoy conversing with each other and chatting in friendships groups. Social development • Girls and boys that develop early are often self-conscious of their body and a target for teasing • Your child may become interested in experimenting with holding hands, hugging and kissing other boys or girls
Children at this stage may feel unsettled when making transition from primary school to secondary school and as puberty approaches. Most children may find the transition to secondary challenging and demanding might as well experience intense anxiety and real fear the transit to secondary school. Which therefore can leads to problems with self-esteem and as a result some children become victims of bullying. Most children become independent and might make decision more; also they may play unsupervised at times. At this stage children may travel to school by themselves towards and by the end of age band.
As they hit teenage stage they develop mood swings. They will also have conflict with parents/careers due to desire for more independence such as why can’t I stay home alone. They also find that rules are unfair (but all my friends are allowed to do it), they will also start challenging rules to see what happens and may also refuse to go along with some decisions made by parents/careers. Physical development 12-19 years By fifteen or sixteen years of age for most girls the process of puberty is completed. On the other hand for boys puberty starts around the age of fourteen years.
For both boys and girls their body changes rapidly throughout puberty, even though some boys grow very rapidly, this can lead to some degree of clumsiness and poor spatial awareness. At this stage some children might develop some talents in sport activities. They might even learn or refine controlling skills such as drawing, stitching, carpentry, woodwork and playing instrument. Communication and intellectual development Young people will be faced with challenges in school as they will preparing for examinations and start to think about their future.
At this stage of development children’s academic knowledge stats to increase as exam curriculum is followed towards aged sixteen, as a result decisions are made about their future goals such as (college course and university careers). They might become reluctant to directly as adults for advice or information they need. Young people may prefer to access information or advice as anonymously. Young people might become stressful due to the pressure to achieve and succeed becomes a powerful force.
Young people’s communication is carried out in number of through electronic means such as text message ia mobile phones, emails or social networking sites such as facebook, twitter and instagram. Social, emotional and behavioural development Young people desire to express understanding starts to develop while at the same time they form strong desire to fit in with peers become apparent and interest in the opposite sex, and also in own sexuality. They might express themselves through creatively such as art/music/dance/drama and even in creative writing. Young people may experience mood swings and they may disregard the opinions/values of parents/careers if they conflict with those of the peer group.
As a result many young people experience their first romantic relationships at this stage and this can lead to some complicated emotions for them to manage. Consequently these stages of development young people become overly concerned about their appearances such as weight or body image. In some cases this leads to eating disorders, low self-esteem and depressions. Sometimes young people swing between acting maturely and saying/doing ‘childish things’. Young people are more likely to communicate their inner thoughts and feelings more frequently to friends than they are with adults.
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Topic: Child and Young Person Development
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