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Child and Young Person Development Essay

Learning outcome 1.1

Describe the expected pattern of children and young people’s development from birth to 19 years, to include:

·Physical development
·Communication and intellectual development
·Social, emotional and behavioural development

Birth to 3 years

The expected pattern starts at 0-3 years where a child is expected to develop the most. They have little control over their bodies at 0-1 years and are dependent on their natural instincts eg: sucking, grasping.

Newborn

New Born babies use their senses from the moment they are born, they can already recognise their mothers voice and smell and they have natural reflexes for example the Walking and standing reflex which occurs when babies are held upright with their feet on a firm surface, they usually make stepping movements.

Physical Development

Swallowing and sucking reflexes – These ensure that the baby can feed and swallow milk Rooting reflex – The baby will move its head to look for a nipple or teat. Grasp reflex – The baby will automatically put her fingers around an object that has touched the palm of her hand. Startle reflex – When babies hear a sudden sound or bright light, they will react by moving their arms outwards and clenching their fists Walking and standing reflex – When babies are held upright with their feet on a firm surface, they usually make stepping movements Falling reflex – This is known as the Moro reflex. Babies will stretch out their arms suddenly and then clasp inwards in any situations in which they feel that they are falling.

Communication and Intellectual development

Babies at birth cry in order to communicate their needs, they may cry when they are hungry, in pain, need feeding, changing or just cuddling. They also start to look around and react to sounds.

Social, Emotional and Behavioural Development

Babies and their primary carers, usually their mothers, begin to develop a strong, close bond from very early on. You might see that the baby at times stares at the mother and the mother is very aware of her baby.

One month

In a short month, babies have changed already. They might appear less curled up and more relaxed. Babies at one month have usually started to settle into a sleeping pattern. They sleep quite a lot of the time, but will gradually start to spend longer times awake. They cry to communicate their needs and their parents may be starting to understand the different types of cries. Babies too are learning about their parents or carers. They may stop crying when they hear soothing voices. They also try hard to focus on the face of whoever is holding them.

Physical development

Reflexes are not as strong although the baby will be growing stronger and may be able to lift their heads for a short while, whilst held upright. Babies can see more clearly than at birth. He enjoys looking at bold patterns and human faces, and can track an object with his eyes He begins to uncurl his hands, and may wave his arms and kick when excited.

Communication and intellectual development

At one month babies may stop crying because they hear a familiar voice, they are also becoming more expressive and may start to coo and gurgle when they see you. Babies may mimic the mouth movements and facial expressions of adults.

Social, emotional and behavioural development

Babies may stop crying as they are picked up, but start crying when they are put down. Babies will start to relax during bath time or when their nappies are changed.

Three to six months

Babies in three months have grown in height and weight. They are wearing new sets of clothes and have changed in many ways. Some babies have learned the difference between day and night and are able to sleep through the night, which is a great help to parents. Babies are also crying less and most parents are getting more familiar with what their cries mean. They may start to sleep a little less and are far more alert

Babies at six months have learnt many skills. They are very alert and turn their heads to see what is happening. They enjoy playing and show it by smiling and squealing with delight. They are able to focus on an object and explore it if it seems interesting. Babies also start to show us that they understand a little of what we are saying and try to communicate with us.

Physical Development

Babies will start to lift and turn their heads, using their arms to support their upper body when lying on their stomach. Babies will start to take an Interest in playing with fingers and opening and closing hands. Exploring toys and objects in the mouth as well as with fingers Babies will be able to Sit up with support and later, without support They will start Rolling over from back to front

They will stretch their legs out and kick when lying on stomach or back Pushes down on legs when feet are placed on a firm surface#
Babies will bring their hands together intentionally and soon after will try to bat at objects or grasp things

Communication and intellectual development
Babies may get excitement when it is time to be fed
Babies will start to notice mobiles and objects around them
They show Enjoyment when simple games such as pat-a-cake are repeated
Curiosity as babies look to see what is happening around them
Babies will begin Babbling, laughing and squealing and imitate some sounds
They will respond to their name

Follows moving objects with eyes
Watches faces closely and recognizes familiar objects and people at a distance
Starts using hands and eyes in coordination
Babies will start to respond to music, turn head toward sound and smiles at the sound of your voice
Social, emotional and behavioural development
Babies will start to enjoy Bath time
They will smile back when they see a smiling face.
Babies are learning to recognize familiar faces and will display smiles of delight when they are playing with their primary carers. They will lift their arms up to show a parent that they want to be picked up. They enjoy playing with others and may cry when playing stops Become more expressive and communicates more with face and body Babies will be drawn to their image in mirrors

Learn how to comfort themselves

Nine Months

Babies’ physical development is now very noticeable. Many babies will be crawling or finding ways of being mobile. They are also able to sit up without any support. These movements mean that babies can explore more and also spend a little time sitting and playing.

When they are mobile they can move quite fast, so this is a period in which adults really need to think about safety. As well as large movements, babies are also picking up objects and handling them, and becoming more skilled at touching things. Things still get popped into the mouth, so, again, adults need to be aware of what is around.

Babies’ language is also coming along. Babbling has become more tuneful and longer strings of sound are put together. Babies are also learning what some key words mean. They may start to get excited when they hear words such as drink or dinner. Babies are also starting to show us who they enjoy being with and may start to cry when they are being left with a stranger.

Physical development
Babies will now sit up without any support
They will practice using fingers to feed
Crawls forward on belly and rolls over
Pulls himself up to stand
May walk two or three steps without support and Walk holding on to furniture
Takes objects out of containers
Pokes with index finger

Communication and intellectual development
Tuneful strings of babbling
Exploring objects using hands and also mouth
Responds to “no” although may not have full understanding of meaning Imitate sounds and may say “mama” and “dada”
Begins to use objects correctly: drinks from cups, listens in a phone
Explores object in different ways: banging, shaking, throwing, etc.

Social, emotional and behavioural development
Baby appears shy or anxious with strangers and will try to stay nearby parents or carer
Babies may cry when caregiver leaves the room
Enjoys imitation and repeats sounds or gestures
Tests parental responses to her behaviour

Twelve to eighteen months

The first birthday of a child is for many families a special event and a cause of celebration. This in part dates back to times when not all babies survived their first year. By twelve months the baby has come a long way in development, they are now more mobile and are able to crawl very quickly and may be on the verge of walking.

As well as gaining mobility, babies are also becoming quite skilled at using their hands. Objects are touched, moved and organised and they enjoy putting things in and out of containers, or dropping things and looking to see what happens to them. A strong feature of their play is the way in which they enjoy doing something over and over again. At one year, babies are now able to sit up and feed themselves using their fingers. Most one year olds know what they do and don’t like. Food that they enjoy gets eaten, while food that they are not hungry for may be thrown onto the floor.

Babies will now be aware of who their parents and main carers are. They are keen to stay near their parents and carers and will stop playing to see what they are doing. Babies are also able to understand more of what is happening around them. They not only notice what other people are doing, but understand more and more of what is being said. Long strings of babbling are still the way in which babies try to communicate, but hidden in the babbling are the beginning of babies’ first words. Parents and carers usually notice these from around 13 months.

Physical Development
Standing up and holding onto furniture alone
Enjoys picking up and handling small objects
Crawls confidently and quickly
Likes to push, pull, and drop things
Will pull off hat, socks, and mittens
Is able to turn pages in a book and stack 2 building blocks
Enjoys carrying small objects while walking, often one in each hand Holds crayon and scribbles, but with little control
Waves bye-bye and claps hands
Enjoys holding spoon when eating, but experiences difficulty in getting spoon into mouth
Rolls a ball to adult on request
Walking up and down stairs with adult help
Sitting and pushing off with legs on sit-and-ride toys.
Able to feed self with spoon

Communication and intellectual development
Waving bye-bye
Will point fingers at objects to draw an adult’s attention to them
Tuneful babbling that sounds like talking progressing to speak 8 -20 words you can understand Looks at person talking to him or her

Says “Hi” or “Bye” if reminded
Uses expressions like “Oh-oh”
Plays peek-a-boo
Understands and follows simple one-step directions
Likes to take things apart
Social, emotional and behavioural development
Repetitive play as the baby enjoys doing something over and over again.
Becomes upset when separated from or cannot see their parent or carer
Likes to hand objects to others
Play independently on floor with toys
Recognizes self in mirror or pictures
Imitates others especially by coughing, sneezing, or making animal sounds
Signs of temper and frustration
Eagerness for independence – trying to feed themselves with a spoon
Will show interest in other children and what they are doing

Children at two years old

By two years old, children are very much showing their individuality. They know what they want to do, touch and hold. They can now move confidently and are enjoying walking, being able to pick up things and playing with them. They enjoy doing things for themselves and are keen to do more – and get frustrated when they are not able to. Sometimes this is because adults realise that what they want is dangerous, while at other times it is because their level of skill is not yet matching what they want to do. Their frustration can lead to temper tantrums and emotional outbursts. This is often a toddler’s way of communication how they are feeling and is why this period is sometimes known as the ‘terrible twos’. While toddlers do get frustrated and angry, they are also emotional in other ways. They smile, laugh and squeal with enjoyment.

They notice other children and enjoy being near them, even though they may not actively play together. Favourite toys and games are played over and over again. Children are also starting to enjoy pretend play. Two-year-olds are often starting to chat aloud. They are likely to have around two hundred words, pointing out objects and naming them.


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