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Child and young person development Essay

1.2 Describe with example how different aspects of development can affect one another. When it comes to different aspects of development there are many examples that can describe how it effects one another, these are as follows: If a child is less developed in reading, when it comes to children having reading time on the carpet in groups, they may feel uncomfortable and unable to form friendships due to embarrassment and low self esteem. This will then affect their language and social development. This can cause the child to feel lonely and angry at themselves because they are not at the other children’s level of learning. If a child doesn’t like to share toys, this can cause a problem with social interaction as they will find it hard to form friendships. The other children will try to avoid the child that is unable to share, this can affect the emotional and social development of the child who is unwilling to share as they will feel lonely and neglected and even abandoned.

If a child is overweight and obese he will struggle to do PE at school as he won’t have the energy and will get tired very quickly. This can cause his classmates to be annoyed with him for delaying the class due to his weight and they will bully him for it. This would leave the child feeling very hurt, embarrassed and he will lose his confidence and self-esteem. This will then effect his physical, social and emotional development.

If a child is use to having his way all the time, such as him eating his lunch whilst watching TV, when the child is at nursery and boundaries are in place this will cause the child to have temper tantrums and become angry. This will affect his social, emotional and behaviour development. As he will not understand why at home he can watch TV and eat on the sofa, but at nursery he has to sit with the other children at the table and eat. This will make him feel very upset and frustrated as he is unable to understand the reasons behind it.

2.1 Describe with examples the kinds of influences that affect children and young people’s development including: background, health and environment.


Children will be part of different ethnic backgrounds, cultures, environments and circumstances; with their families going through different changes school may not be aware of it. Deprivation and poverty can effect pupil’s development, statistics show that children who come from deprived backgrounds are less likely to achieve well in school as parents find it difficult to manage their needs. Some children may come from a home schooling environment so when they start a new school it will be difficult for them to adapt to different teaching methods so they will need additional support.


Development opportunities can be restricted if a child suffers from poor health or disability. For example, a child who has a disability may be less able to engage in some activates during school. This can affect their physical development but may also restrict their social communication, for example, on the playground. When a child is aware of their needs it can affect them emotionally. It’s important that children are supported to ensure they are included in as much as possible.


The different environment and circumstances that pupils are exposed to at school and during their childhood and teens can affect their development. Many families may go through changes, which will have an impact on the way children respond in different situations. Families may break-up, get divorced or a new partner may be introduced which may effect children emotionally. Families may move house or change country, which can affect individuals socially, there could be a bereavement or illness in the family, which can be traumatic and upsetting for the whole family. If a child is looked after or in care it can effect their development emotionally, socially and physically.

2.2 Describe with examples the importance of recognizing and responding to concerns about children and young people’s development. The following things would cause concern about a child or young person’s development. If the problem was left untreated then things could get worse, and a delay in treatment could mean that the outcome is not as good as it would have been if treatment was started earlier.

Speech / Language.

If a child or young person does not talk to anyone or even only speaks a few words compared to others, this may cause concern. This would socially affect the child or young person’s because they would find it hard to make friends, work in groups or even interact with adults. It would also affect their communicational development because they would find it hard to speak to people and also may find it hard to listen to instructions etc. Early intervention would be the best way to respond to this concern, the first step would be to have the child or young person’s hearing checked because if they have poor hearing they will find it hard to hear people so will not want to communicate with others in case they get something wrong.

Poor reading and writing.

If a child or young person has difficulties with their reading and writing it may cause concern, but this may not be noticeable until the child is around the age of 6 or 7 because by this age they should have learnt how letters are formed and start to string words together. These are the main skills a child needs to help them develop in all areas. Due to poor reading and writing the child or young person will start to fall behind his peers of the same age. They may find it difficult to interact or make friends with others who are more advanced than them, in case they are bullied etc. They would struggle with their intellectual development not only with the reading and writing, but they would struggle with their memory and even their concentration.

3.3.1. Identify the transitions experienced by most children and young people’s. Most children may experience transitions; transitions can be long term or short term. Some transitions that most children may experience are likely to be, starting school or changing from one school to another. Some families may move house several times throughout their lives this can affect a child in that they have to try and make new friends and get use to the area in which they will be living. Children and young people have to make very many of their transitions without prior personal experience, and it can sometimes appear to them as a daunting list of ‘firsts’: first day at school; first exam; first sexual experience. Most of these changes are navigated well by most children and young people, as and when they are ready.

The experience they gain and the skills they learn in the process equip them to deal with the challenges of life ahead. The diverse range of transitions faced by children and young people includes: starting or moving school, puberty, bereavement, parents splitting up, illness (their own or a parent’s or sibling’s),changing friendship groups, entry to, or leaving, a pupil referral unit, moving through child health services into adult services, coming out as gay or lesbian this this affects older children, leaving home. Young people and children will need help and support from peers and adults to successfully make the transition to the next stage in their life. The nature and timing and giver of the support will vary depending on the individual’s needs and circumstances.

Transition experienced by most children and young people include: Moving away – This could make the child or young person frustrated because they are being torn away from either their favourite place or friends, this could also make the child become anxious. Friends moving away – This could make the child or young person feel nervous because they will then have to make new friends which may not be easy for the child, this could also make the child become anxious and become shy. Puberty – This could make the child or young person feel confused because they cant control what is happening to them, this could also make the child become dismissive or make the child become argumentative with parents or carers. Starting a new school – This could make the child or young person feel nervous because they have to make new friends and could make the child feel anxious because they don’t know what will happen. This could also make the child become shy or dismissive or even anxious.

3.3.2. Identify transitions that only some children and young people may experience e.g. bereavement.

Transitions experienced by only some children and young people include:

Diagnosis of a disability – This could make the child or young person feel jealousy because he/she may feel different, this could also make the child act unusual such as being dismissive. Divorce – This could make the child or young person feel frustrated, confused because the child or young person may not be seeing one parent as much as before, this could also make the child act unusual such as becoming withdrawn and being argumentative with parents.

New siblings – This could make the child or young person feel jealous because he/she may not be getting as much attention as before, this also make the child act unusual such as becoming dismissive . New step parent – This could make the child or young person feel jealous because he/she may not get as much attention as before. Sometimes this can bring huge positive changes.It can impart the child’s life in a good way. Bereavement-the death of a close friend or relative may be very traumatic for a child, when it comes to times of change and transitions you should give children every opportunity to talk about what.

3.3.3. Describe with examples how transitions may affect children and young people’s behaviour and development. Transitions are an essential part of a child and young persons development. These changes within a child or young persons life may be progressive or sudden. They present the child/young person with challenges which they must overcome. Transitions are stressful for children and young people, just as they are for adults, and the resulting stress can have far-reaching effects on children’s emotional well being and academic achievements. How a child or young person deals with transitions is greatly affected by the support and response children get from those around them. A child’s early experiences of transitions will have a big impact on how they handle transitions at later stages of life. As some changes of transitions are not anticipated, they can cause distress and feelings of lack of control in the child or young person.

This can affect emotional and behavioural development, in turn leading to possible impacts on physiological and intellectual development. The transitions that children and young people face can be: Emotional: affected by personal experiences, for example bereavement or the divorce or separation of parents ,Physical: moving to a new home, class or school, Intellectual: moving from one type of organisation to another, for example from nursery to school, primary school to secondary school, secondary school to college or college to university Physiological: going through puberty or a long-term medical condition. Puberty is a major transition that all children at some point, will have to go through. It can be a difficult time for both sexes emotionally, socially and physically.

Behaviour will change and so will their physical appearance, which may cause them to feel insecure, especially if they are female. Peer approval will become increasingly important and may be related to physical development. Males may show more aggressive behaviour as their hormone levels increase and females may become insecure about late development or embarrassed about early development. Both sexes will be very aware of their changes and will compare their own rate of development with that of their friends. Most, reach puberty around the same time, some develop earlier and some later. Boys who develop more quickly are often found to be more popular and independent. Girls, however, if developing earlier than their friends tend to get teased and have a more negative experience.

The development of breasts can be very embarrassing for a girl, as it may bring a lot of unwanted comments and attention, not only from boys, but also from other girls who may be jealous of the attention the girl is getting, or may be teasing and gossiping. This can lower a person’s confidence and make them feel very uncomfortable. Changing for sports in a communal area could become an issue, with other girls staring, and may make the young person stay away from sports, preferring to go sick, rather than endure the unwanted attention.

One main transition within a child’s life is changing schools. This can make children feel insecure, nervous and anxious about the unknown. Whilst they may feel some sense of excitement about the new experiences they will be exposed too they will generally be apprehensive. They may be leaving behind good friends, loved teachers, a great support network and may feel a huge sense of loss. Their behaviour may change, they may become withdrawn and emotional.

TDA 2.2: Safeguarding the welfare of children and young people. 1.1.1 Identify the current Identify the Current Legislation, Guidelines, Policies and Procedures for Safeguarding the Welfare of Children and Young People including e-safety. The current legislation and guidelines are policies and procedures for safeguarding who is promoting children’s welfare and putting measures in lace to improve children’s safety and preserve abuse. Child protection who are action taken to protect child when there is a reasonable belief that they are at risk of significant harm. All in setting for children and young people in England and Wales are the result of legislation passed in parliament, including England and Wales, the children Act 1989 and children Act 2004. Current Identify the Current Legislation, Guidelines for Safeguarding the Welfare of Children and Young People are Children’s act 1098/2004, Education act 2002,E-safety 2008, Safeguarding, Human rights act, The Vetting and Barring Scheme. Children’s act 2004 has five outcomes for well-being in childhood and later life.

These are: being healthy; staying safe; enjoying and achieving; making a positive contribution and achieving economic well-being. In 2000, an 8 year old girl called Victoria Climbiè was tortured and murdered by her guardians. Her death resulted in a mass investigation and the demand for stricter child safety laws. The inquest in 2003, lead by Lord Laming, led to the green paper, a preliminary report of government proposals that is published in order to raise discussion on the matter, named Every Child Matters The Act includes: a Children’s Commissioner to champion the views and interests of children and young people; a duty on Local Authorities to make arrangements to promote co-operation between agencies and other appropriate bodies (such as voluntary and community organisations) in order to improve children’s well-being (where well-being is defined by reference to the five outcomes), and a duty on key partners to take part in the co-operation arrangements; a duty on key agencies to safeguard and promote the welfare of children;

a duty on Local Authorities to set up Local Safeguarding Children Boards and on key partners to take part; provision for indexes or databases containing basic information about children and young people to enable better sharing of information; a requirement for a single Children and Young People’s Plan to be drawn up by each Local Authority; a requirement on Local Authorities to appoint a Director of Children’s Services and designate a Lead Member; the creation of an integrated inspection framework and the conduct of Joint Area Reviews to assess local areas’ progress in improving outcomes; and provisions relating to foster care, private fostering and the education of children in care. Education Act 2002 refers to an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom which amended legislation relating to academies, publicly-funded schools operating outside of local government control and with a significant degree of autonomy areas such as wages and digressing from the national curriculum.

Policies and procedures

All settings and pre-schools working with children and young people must have a policy for protection of children under the age of 18 that states responsibilities and is reviewed annually, preparations to work with the Local Safeguarding Children Board, a duty to apprise the Independent Safeguarding Authority of any individual who is threat to children, training on safeguarding for all staff and volunteers, effective rick assessment of the provision to check that the safeguarding policy and plans work, arrangements for DRB checks on all adults who has regular connection with children up to age of 18, contact details of a parent or carer for all children under the age of 18.


The internet and video games are very popular with children and young people and offer a range of opportunities for fun, learning and development. But there are concerns over potentially inappropriate material, which range from content (eg violence) through to contact and conduct of children in the digital world. Debates and research in this area can be highly polarised and charged with emotion. Dr Tanya Byron, in her landmark report ‘Safer Children in a Digital World’, published in March 2008,set out a challenging agenda for Government, its partners, industry and the third sector, to work together to make children safer when using the internet and video games. Government accepted all of Dr Byron’s recommendations in full, signifying our commitment to children’s safety when using new technology.

We cannot make internet completely safety but we can reduse the rick to children and help them to use it properly and safety; blocking access to unsuitable web sites by using a program, reducing the time spend front of the PC, teach the children of dangers and how to recognize them, helping to the children to develop skills to deal with situations, educating parents using internet properly and carer about risks and controls. 1.1.2 Describe the roles of different agencies involved in safeguarding the welfare of children and young people. All children are known by many organisations. That helps to bring effective safeguarding and make the children to feel more secure.

Many children know the Childline -0800 1111

Social Services- There to offer support to the child and the setting. Social services have the powers to investigate any suspected improper behaviour from carers, children or the setting. They also have to meet and conduct interviews with the child and the family members involved, liaise with and get relevant information about the child and their circumstances from other agencies involved with the child, they have to take the lead during the Child Protection Conference as well as take action when a child or young person appears or is thought to be in immediate danger. Child Protection Investigation Unit (CPIU)- Unit run by the police who have the powers to investigation, who have the powers to investigate, interview and arrest anyone who is suspected of abusing a child. The CPIU has to make a decision on whether a crime has been committed and if so to begin a criminal investigation.

They also have to gather evidence from Social Services and other agencies thought to be involved with the child or young person’s wellbeing. The CPIU must take immediate action if a child or young person is thought to be in any immediate danger which may involve removing the child from harm or removing the perpetrator and attend any court hearing to give evidence when a crime has been commited. Health Visitors- Health visitors can sometimes be the first person to see signs of abuse, especially physical. They have a duty of care to refer such information to Social Services. Health visitors must carry out a full medical examination or observations of any child or young person who is thought to be at risk of abuse or is/has suffered from abuse. Schools: Schools have the responsibility to develop childrens awareness and their knowledge of what is acceptable and what is not acceptable behaviour, including when using the internet.

Support and protect children who are identified as being at greater risk or are on the at risk register and provide professional training of all staff relating to safeguarding. Have policies and securtiy systems for e-learning activities and use software filters. Observe signs of abuse, chages in childrens behaviour or failure to thrive and refer any concerns. Children spend a great amount of time in school with teachers and staff so it is essential staff are able to monitor, keep records, share appropriate information with other agencies and just be aware of any unexplained changes in the child. Any setting such as nursery, childminder, afterschool or holiday scheme. Another agencies are General Practitioners, Local hospital services, child psychology services. 2.2.1 Identify the sign and symptoms of common childhood illnesses.

Most children and young people will experience some episodes of illness in their life. Common illnesses, like coughs and colds, are not usually serious. However, illnesses like meningitis are more serious and will need specialist medical care. Illnesses, like chicken pox, are infectious (easily spread) and others, like asthma, are not infectious at all. It is important for anyone who works with children and young people to be able to recognize the signs of illness and know what action to take. The main signs of illness in a child or young person are poor appetite, no energy, change in behaviour (unusually quiet, not sleeping well, crying more than usual), constipation or diarrhoera, vomiting, skin rash, raised body temperature, a cough, headache, stomach ache, earache or runny nose.

Signs and symptoms

Young children find it difficult to describe how they feel. They may say that they have ‘tummy ache’ when they actually feel upset, afraid or worried. Children’s symptoms can worsen very quickly and they should always be taken seriously and not ignored. Frequently the illness are common cold the symptoms are, sneezing, sore throat ,runny nose, headache, temperature. Is important for adult to encourage child to blow nose,the incubation period is 1-3 days. Gastroenteritis the symptoms are vomiting diarrhoea ,dehydration. The treatment,that the child is not dehydrated it is important to give him water often. Scarlet fever,the symptoms are lose appetite,fever sore throat pale around the mouth,strawberry tongue,the treatment it’s important the child rest and adult observe if there is complications.

The incubation period 2-4 days. Chicken pox,fever ,very itchy rash with blister-type appearance,the treatment,tepid bath with sodium bicarbonate and calamine applied to skin to stop itching to stop children scratching to avoid scarring. Dysentery – vomiting, diarrhoea with blood and mucus, abdominal pain, fever, headache. Measles- high fever, runny nose and eyes, cough, white spots in mouth, blotchy rash on body and face. Mumps – pain and swelling of jaw, painful swallowing, fever. Rubella (German measles) – slight cold, sore throat, swollen glands behind ears, slight pink rash. Pertussis (whooping cough) – snuffy cold, spasmodic cough with whoop sound, vomiting. Meningitis- fever, headache, irritability, drowsiness, confusion, dislike of light, very stiff neck, maybe small red spots beneath the skin that do not disappear when a glass is pressed against them.

2.2.2 Describe the actions to take when children or young people are ill or injured. Parents or guardians have prime responsibility for their child’s health and should provide the school with information about their child’s medical condition and treatment or special care needed at school. Children should not attend school if they are acutely unwell. The setting or pre-school has a duty of care to look after children with a known medical condition or who become ill or have an accident during school hours. Every setting or pre-school must have First Aid box and at least one individual how is fully trained. In time of accident the key person must be act. If is neseserry can call to emergency. Every setting and pre-school has defferent rules but they must follow the rutenes that will helps to the children. 2.2.3 Identify circumstances when children and young people might require urgent medical attention.

Some children may be too young or may not be physically able to tell you when they need medical attention due to a disability. Often children and young people can become seriously ill very suddenly which means that as a member of staff you should be alert to any changes in their behaviour which could indicate pain or nausea. When a child becomes sick or lets you know that they feel unwell, you will need to sufficiently look after them until their parent or a carer arrives to collect them. In life threatening situations the emergency services should always be contacted straight away. An example of this would be if a child had any of the following signs of acute illness: an open wound that won’t stop bleeding or where the blood is pumping out,burns or scalds to the child’s skin, Meningitis symptoms such as a stiff neck, fever, headache and a rash that doesn’t fade when pressed by a glass,confusion, headache, vomiting or blurred vision after a head injury.

Being floppy, unresponsive or unconscious. Difficulty breathing and blueness around the lips. Having a high fever, heat exhaustion or severe sunburn. Some children may be too young or may not be physically able to tell you when they need medical attention due to a disability. Often children and young people can become seriously ill very suddenly which means that as a member of staff you should be alert to any changes in their behaviour which could indicate pain or nausea. When a child becomes sick or lets you know that they feel unwell, you will need to sufficiently look after them until their parent or a carer arrives to collect them. In life threatening situations the emergency services should always be contacted straight away.If is necessary call to 999 for an ambulance.

2.2.4. Describe the actions to take in response to emergency situations including fires, security incidents and missing children and young people. You have to know where the fire exit are. Never put anything on the way of a fire way. Close door and windows and try to get out the children from the fire place.Make sure that the children are awalys with an adult. Call to the fire brigade by telephone as soon as you can as follow dear 999, give you phone number, make sure that you spell the address correctly and it received. Any setting must have security.

For example at the pre-school where I have a plcemenet the main door alwaiys is locked, the emergency door is open only from inside.When some one rings is very easy to look how is there.The key person knows the main people who visit the pre-school regulary.In case some stanger get in there is visitor book, check for indentity. Any stranger seen hanging around school or in the school grounds should be reported without delay to the headteacher who WILL call police if necessary. Any stranger found in the building should be challenged by a senior member of staff.

If a child cannot be found by their teacher/support worker/lunchtime supervisor, the headteacher must be notified immediately and told when and where the child was last seen. The remaining children will be left safe in the care of suitable staff. All other staff available will conduct a thorough search of the childs classroom, play area,toilets, the school building and the grounds If the child is not found within a very short period of time, the police must be called by the headteacher or a member of staff.

3.3.1. Identify the characteristics of different types of children abuse.

Physical Abuse

Defined as non-accidental trauma or physical injury caused by punching, beating, kicking, biting, burning or otherwise harming a child, physical abuse is the most visible form of child maltreatment. Many times, physical abuse results from inappropriate or excessive physical discipline. A parent or caretaker in anger may be unaware of the magnitude of force with which he or she strikes the child. Other factors that can contribute to child abuse include parents’ immaturity, lack of parenting skills, poor childhood experiences and social isolation, as well as frequent crisis situations, drug or alcohol problems and domestic violence.

Physical indicators of abuse include bruises; lacerations; swollen areas; and marks on the child’s face, head, back, chest, genital area, buttocks or thighs. Wounds like human bite marks, cigarette burns, broken bones, puncture marks or missing hair may indicate abuse. A child’s behavior might also signal that something is wrong. Victims of physical abuse may display withdrawn or aggressive behavioral extremes, complain of soreness or uncomfortable movement, wear clothing that is inappropriate for the weather, express discomfort with
physical contact or become chronic runaways.

Sexual abuse

At the extreme end of the spectrum, sexual abuse includes sexual intercourse or its deviations. Yet all offences that involve sexually touching a child, as well as non-touching offenses and sexual exploitation, are just as harmful and devastating to a child’s well-being. Touching sexual offenses include: Fondling; Making a child touch an adult’s sexual organs; and penetrating a child’s vagina or anus no matter how slight with a penis or any object that doesn’t have a valid medical purpose. Non-touching sexual offenses include: Engaging in indecent exposure or exhibitionism; Exposing children to pornographic material; Deliberately exposing a child to the act of sexual intercourse; and Masturbating in front of a child. Sexual exploitation can include:Engaging a child or soliciting a child for the purposes of prostitution; and Using a child to film, photograph or model pornography.

These definitions are broad. In most countries, the legal definition of child molestation is an act of a person—adult or child—who forces, coerces or threatens a child to have any form of sexual contact or to engage in any type of sexual activity at the perpetrator’s direction. The effects of sexual abuse extend far beyond childhood. Sexual abuse robs children of their childhood and creates a loss of trust, feelings of guilt and self-abusive behavior. It can lead to antisocial behavior, depression, identity confusion, loss of self-esteem and other serious emotional problems. It can also lead to difficulty with intimate relationships later in life. The sexual victimization of children is ethically and morally wrong.

Emotional Abuse

Emotional abuse of a child is commonly defined as a pattern of behavior by parents or caregivers that can seriously interfere with a child’s cognitive, emotional, psychological or social development. Emotional abuse of a child — also referred to as psychological maltreatment — can include: Ignoring -either physically or psychologically, the parent or caregiver is not present to respond to the child. He or she may not look at the child and may not call the child by name. Rejecting-this is an active refusal to respond to a child’s needs (e.g., refusing to touch a child, denying the needs of a child, ridiculing a child). Isolating-the parent or caregiver consistently prevents the child from having normal social interactions with peers, family members and adults. This also may include confining the child or limiting the child’s freedom of movement. Exploiting or corrupting. In this kind of abuse, a child is taught, encouraged or forced to develop inappropriate or illegal behaviors.

It may involve self-destructive or antisocial acts of the parent or caregiver, such as teaching a child how to steal or forcing a child into prostitution. Verbally assaulting.This involves constantly belittling, shaming, ridiculing or verbally threatening the child. Terrorizing here, the parent or caregiver threatens or bullies the child and creates a climate of fear for the child. Terrorizing can include placing the child or the child’s loved one (such as a sibling, pet or toy) in a dangerous or chaotic situation, or placing rigid or unrealistic expectations on the child with threats of harm if they are not met. Neglecting the child.

This abuse may include educational neglect, where a parent or caregiver fails or refuses to provide the child with necessary educational services; mental health neglect, where the parent or caregiver denies or ignores a child’s need for treatment for psychological problems; or medical neglect, where a parent or caregiver denies or ignores a child’s need for treatment for medical problems. Although the visible signs of emotional abuse in children can be difficult to detect, the hidden scars of this type of abuse manifest in numerous behavioral ways, including insecurity, poor self-esteem, destructive behavior, angry acts (such as fire setting and animal cruelty), withdrawal, poor development of basic skills, alcohol or drug abuse, suicide, difficulty forming relationships.

Emotionally abused children often grow up thinking that they are deficient in some way. A continuing tragedy of emotional abuse is that, when these children become parents, they may continue the cycle with their own children. Neglect is usually typified by an ongoing pattern of inadequate care and is easily observed by individuals in close contact with the child. Professionals define four types of neglect physical, educational, emotional and medical.

Bulling and harassment

Bulling is act show aggressive, unrespect and rude actions. Bullying can take many forms: Physical violence, Intimidation and threats, Name calling and belittling, Social exclusion (i.e., leaving someone out of social gatherings and activities), Gossiping and spreading rumors about others, Public humiliation, Using slurs, words or phrases that characterize a bullied victim’s identity to suggest that something is unacceptable or worthless (e.g., using the word “gay” when what is meant is “un-cool”).

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