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Chemistry Essay Topics & Paper Examples

Dehydration of Methylcyclohexanol

A common Sophomore Organic Chemistry laboratory experiment that has great potential for further research is the acid catalyzed dehydration of simple alcohols. The classic dehydration of 2-methylcyclohexanol experiment that was introduced in Journal of Chemical Education in 1967 Taber(1967)JCE:44,p620. The rather simple procedure of distilling an alcohol with an aqueous acid has spawned several investigations that have resulted in formal journal articles. At the same time, the experiment has retained its popularity in the Sophomore Organic Chemistry laboratory curriculum. In one line of inquiry it has been observed that a mixture of 2-methylcyclohexanol diastereomers gives rise to a mixture of three isomeric alkenes Todd(1994)JCE:71,p440; Feigenbaum(1987) JCE:64, p273; Cawley (1997) JCE:74l, p102. Explaining the presence of the three alkene products requires…

Chemistry and Math

Education is the best legacy. This has been a lifelong statement that I have come to believe. Personally, I believe that learning continues until the death of a man. This is because no man can claim to know everything. Life faces us with new possibilities daily and there is the next thing waiting in line; a new ladder to climb and a new goal or dream to achieve. Therefore, while we appreciate our present academic achievement, we should strive more by seeking more knowledge to improve ourselves. Furthermore, I believe that the achievement of one goal should lead to the desire to set a higher one. In this context, I strongly subscribe to the idea that knowledge is imperishable and…

The Fuel Burning Speed of Cement Rotary Kiln

Rotary kiln is refers to rotating calcining kiln (also known as rotating kiln), which belongs to thermal equipment. Rotary kiln can be divided into metallurgy kiln, chemical engineering kiln, and building material kiln according to its different dealing materials. The building material kiln is mainly used in calcining clinker cement, limestone and porcelain granule. Metallurgy rotary kiln is mainly used for the magnetizing calcining of lean iron ore in iron and steel plant in metallurgy industry, the chromites and josephinite oxidizing calcining , calcining of dewalquite and clinker aggregate and aluminum hydroxide roasting in aluminum factory; Chemical engineering rotary kiln is used in chemical plant for chromium ore and chromium ore powder roasting. The limestone kiln( activity limestone kiln )…

Physical and Chemical Properties

Purpose: The Physical and Chemical Properties lab provides the opportunity to investigate the physical and chemical properties of pure chemical substances and analyze the experiment results. Procedure: In the beginning of the experiment, I filled two 24-well plates half way with the given chemicals and sucked up these chemicals into their labeled pipets for later use. Following this, I performed a number of steps on each of the four test tubes and recorded observations of the different substances including odor, color, reaction to heat, the effects on the red and blue litmus paper and HCI reactions. Observations: As most of the observations are noted on the table above, it is a fair assumption that all of these substances went through…

Oxidation of Benzoin and Rearrangement of Benzil to Produce Benzilic Acid

The objective of the lab was to produce benzilic acid from benzoin. Benzoin was successfully oxidized with nitric acid to form benzil. The percent yield of benzil was 59.26% and the melting point range was 94.1-95.5°C. The literature melting point of pure benzil is 95°C, which indicates the correct product was obtained. Benzil was then rearranged using potassium hydroxide to form benzilic acid. The percent yield of benzilic acid was 57.94% and the melting point range was 147.9-149.8°C. The literature melting point of pure benzilic acid is 150°C; this also indicates that the correct product was isolated. Crude products were formed through crystallization and then recrystallized to obtain pure products. Melting points were taken of each product to prove its…

Experiment

The primary focus of experiment 4 was to teach a student the basic solubility rules of salts in aqueous solutions. After developing and using a scheme for the qualitative analysis of three cations in an aqueous mixture, a student would use a centrifuge to identify, precipitate, and separate the three ions in the mixture. After becoming familiar with all three cations, the student would use the scheme again to identify at least two of the cations in an unknown solution. In order to begin the separation process, HCl is added to the mixture of cations to form the precipitates and separate the chlorides of Ag+, Pb2+, and HG22+. It is important not to add too much HCl because an excess…

Alum Lab Conclusion

The purpose of this laboratory was to use two different techniques to attempt to identify the melting point and the mole ratio of hydrated water to anhydrous aluminum, potassium, and sulfate of AlKSO4. The hypotheses were: if the alum was put in a capillary tube the melting point of alum will be able to be determined; and the water of hydration in alum crystals will be possible to determine if the alum is heated with a Bunsen burner. Results: Every compound has its own unique sets of chemical properties. Alum crystals are of great purity and are easily prepared. Because of their purity, they are often used in dyeing cloth, where the alum acts as a source of Al+3 ions…

Purity of Aspirin by Spectrophotometry

The mass of acetylsalicylic acid was determined using a analytical balance. Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) was added to the acetylsalicylic acid and heated in order to hydrolyze acetylsalicylic acid. Iron chloride was added to each volumetric flask as the purity of the aspirin can be tested by addition of Fe+3 to a suspension of the product. Phenols such as salicylic acid react with iron chloride to form coloured (violet) complexes Aspirin easily absorbs green light and green is the compliment of violet, which allows a determination of the amount of aspirin present. The percentage purity of aspirin was found to be 90. 62%. Aspirin tablets (about 5-grams) are usually compounded of about 0. 32 g of acetylsalicylic acid, which indicates that…

Gravimetric Determination of Phosphorus in Fertilizer Samples

I. Abstract The purpose of this experiment is to determinethe Phophorus content of fertilizer samples using Gravimetric Analysis. It involves dissolution of the fertilizer sample, precipitation and heating and cooling of the sample. Pooled standard deviations of the two data sets for % Pwet, %Pdry, %P2O5 wet and %P2O5 dry were 5.1448, 5.1472, 11.8436 and 11.8504 respectvely. During the experiment a data rejection for %P and %P2O5 was concluded at approximately 20% and 47%. Determination of the Phosphorus content in fertilizer is vital in quality assurance and in the choosing of a fertilizer grade important for agriculture. II. Introduction Plants require essential nutrients such as Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium or Sulfur to grow. However, most soils lack these macronutrients thus a…

Chemistry Life in Daily Life

Introduction: Fluorine has the distinction of being the most reactive of all the elements, with the highest electronegativity value on the periodic table. Because of this, it proved extremely difficult to isolate. Davy first identified it as an element, but was poisoned while trying unsuccessfully to decompose hydrogen fluoride. Two other chemists were also later poisoned in similar attempts, and one of them died as a result. French chemist Edmond Fremy (1814-1894) very nearly succeeded in isolating fluorine, and though he failed to do so, he inspired his student Henri Moissan (1852-1907) to continue the project. One of the problems involved in isolating this highly reactive element was the fact that it tends to “attack” any container in which it…

Hydrogen Peroxide in the Presence of Yeast

A number of different variables, such as the concentration of the hydrogen peroxide solution or the temperature at which the reaction occurs, can affect the rate at which yeast breaks down hydrogen peroxide. To prove this we first tested the solution with 3% concentration of peroxide, the paper that was soaked in yeast rose in 1.7 seconds. After that we changed our concentration to 2.25%, 1.5%, and .75% of hydrogen peroxide to see the effects it had on the amount of time it took the felt to completely drop and rise. On 2.25% it took 2.8 seconds, 1.5% took 3.2 seconds, and .75% took 3.9 seconds. Introduction When yeast and hydrogen peroxide react, the peroxide decomposes into water and oxygen…

Chemistry in the Movies Assignment

This project will explore the public perception of chemistry. Each participating student will analyze a movie. Movies may be selected from the list on the following page or the student may find analyze any other academically acceptable movie with a chemist or chemical theme. All reviews will use academically acceptable language, spelling, and grammar and be 400 words minimum. For each movie, the student will post the following in the Chemistry in the Movies folder on Blackboard. * Summary: Write a summary (20 words minimum) of the movie’s chemical theme. * Most Important Scene: Write a description of the most important chemical scene, or scene about chemistry, from the movie (40 words minimum). * The Chemistry Involved: Write a short…

Daphnia Ecotoxicology Lab Report

Introduction Ecosystems have a way of maintaining themselves under ordinary conditions but when a new factor is added that will most likely threaten the environment action needs to be put forth. Our environment is affected by many pollutants on a daily bases forming a threat to natural stability. For example some of the most polluted parts of the environment are bodies of water like that explained in our lab. Once pollution occurs animals can be affected in many ways even to the brink of death. In the lab the stream is getting pumped with salty potassium filled water that can kill daphnia, habitants of the stream, if the concentration gets too high. To prevent this a real-time assay can be…

Periodic Table Trends

When you think of a periodic table, you think of elements like oxygen, neon, lead, and iron. You may even think of numbers, rows, and columns. You may not think about trends that are happening throughout a periodic table. There are many different trends that go on in a periodic table. The trends that I am going to be describing throughout this paper are atomic mass, atomic radius, first ionization energy, and electronegativity. When you study a normal/ordinary periodic table, the atomic mass will usually get bigger when going left to right and it will also get bigger when you go top to bottom. The atomic mass gets bigger left to right and top to bottom because the protons, electrons,…

Preparation of Alum from Aluminum Metal

The objective of the laboratory is to synthesize alum (KAl(SO4)2.xH2O) from aluminum powder and to determine the proportion of water in the alum crystals. Alum is a product from the reaction between potassium hydroxide and sulfuric acid. The reaction include several steps, as followed: Aluminum powder reacts with potassium hydroxide to generate Al(OH)4- ions and release hydrogen. 2 Al(s) + 2 KOH(aq) + 6 H2O 2 K[Al(OH)4](aq) + 3 H2 (g) A gelatinous precipitate of aluminum hydroxide was created when sulfuric acid was added to the aqueous solution of Al(OH)4- ions. 2 K[Al(OH)4](aq) + H2SO4 (aq) 2 Al(OH)3 (s) + K2SO4 (aq) + 2 H2O Later, excessive addition of the acid causes the precipitate to dissolve in the solution. 2Al(OH)3…

Conductivity vs Molarity

Introduction: Athetles consume Gatorade to replenish the electrolytes lost through sweat. Since Gatorade has a high concentration of solutes such as electrolytes it allows for the nervous system to respond faster to changes in the body. “Electroyltes are molecules that can dissociate into ions and conduct electrical currents” (EduChange 2002). These molecules, can move freely, once dissociated into ions allowing for there to be a electrical current. Because elcetroyltes can not conduct electrical currents in there solid form they are put in a solution to dissociate. The purpose of Lab 32 was to determine the effect that the concentration of a solue has on the conductivity of an electrolytic solution. If NaCl is added to water to create an electrolytic…

Chemistry and Society

Chemistry is very important in our lives even though we may not realize that chemistry is everywhere. This paper serves to examine the ways in which chemistry is relevant in everyday life and in society. It will also examine the difference between accuracy and precision and provide examples of when accuracy and precision are crucial in measurements and why society depends on these measurements to be accurate and precise ( Tam 2012). Chemistry in Society When we turn on the tap and fill a glass with water and drink it, we are benefitting from the chemical process that removes impurities from water, providing us with clean drinking water. When we use a laundry detergent to remove a stubborn stain from clothing,…

Alembic Chemical Works Ltd

The pharmaceutical companies have to do direct marketing by necessity as they cannot advertise ethical products in layman’s media for him, but are required to promote only to the medical profession. They produce fine visual aids and product literature which could either be sent as direct mailings to the medical profession or can be delivered to them through medical representatives. The Living Legends What does one say about Lata Mangeshkar? That she has dominated the Indian film music scene for almost four decades and promises to do so for atleast another decade? That she became a legend in her own life time? That here is a musical genius which comes about just once in many centuries? One could say all…

Chemistry and Biotechnology

ABSTRACT Elemental analysis of organic compounds determine the elements present in them but they do not give the actual structure or the functional groups present. Since all organic compounds contain hydrogen and carbon, most tests consist of only the determination of oxygen, sulfur, nitrogen and halogens – elements that are most of the time the only ones involved in organic compounds. The experiment focused on the Sodium Fusion test, which tested for all elements except oxygen. In the test, the test compound is broken down into its elements, which then bond individually with sodium. The presence of sulfur was tested either with lead acetate or sodium nitroprusside. The presence of nitrogen was tested with ferrous ammonium sulfate and potassium fluoride….

Crystals Research Paper

Crystals form in the depths of the Earth to the extension of the clouds in sky. Some think that crystals elude the sight of people’s eyes everyday in life, but they are everywhere including ingredients for food, construction materials, and even in ice-cold weather. The crystals in this experiment are ammonia-generated crystals that can be created right in a home. The experiment will be testing the different effects and products on crystals in different temperatures and forms of light. Different measurements will be recorded throughout the experiment such as mass and length. But first the crystals must grow. The scientific study of crystals and crystal formation is called crystallography. All over the world, though the different ages of man, crystals…

Role of Chemistry

Applications of chemical science have contributed significantly to the advancement of human civilization (1, 2, 3). With a growing understanding and ability to manipulate chemical molecules, the post-World War II chemist was considered a societal problem solver. They synthesized crop-enhancing agricultural chemicals to ensure a constant and viable food supply. They played a significant role in the eradication of deadly diseases by developing life-saving pharmaceuticals and chemical pesticides. Chemists also developed innovative plastics and synthetic fibers for use in a both industrial and consumer products (1, 2, 3). The chemical industry has been a vital sector of the modern industrialized economy (2, 3). The chemical and allied manufacturing sectors in the United States employ over two million individuals. This accounts…

Chemistry and Chemical Reactivity

The Kinetic Molecular Theory of Gases (KMT) is an explanation and description of the motion and behavior of molecules. It looks into the kinematics of molecules, wherein focus on the forces exists between molecules and the energy generated by the motion of these molecules (Poseidon Software and Invention, 1997). Etymologically, the KMT comes from “kinetic” which means moving, and “molecular” which comes from the root word molecule, classically the smallest unit of particle. The KMT includes several postulates which describe how the molecules of gases behave. The following are characteristics of how gas molecules behave: (1) Gases are composed of very small particles called molecules; (2) the molecules are very large in number; (3) they are perfectly spherical in shape…

Synthesis of Isopentyl Acetate Via Fischer Esterification

Isopentyl acetate, banana oil, is a naturally occurring compound that has a very distinct and recognizable odor. It is most commonly found in bananas but also can be found in other organisms. The purpose of this lab was to synthesize the ester isopentyl acetate via an acid catalyzed esterification (Fischer Esterification) of acetic acid with isopentyl alcohol. Emil Fischer and Arthur Speier were the pioneers of this reaction referred to as Fischer Esterification. The reaction is characterized by the combining of an alcohol and an acid (with an acid catalyst) to yield and ester plus water. In order to accomplish the reaction, the reactants were refluxed for an hour to yield the product. The advantages of using this particular esterification…

Ion and Pb2+ Ions

Experiment 14 Topic Purpose Procedure : Qualitative analysis : To determine the cations and anions of inorganic substances : (a) Solids KA1 and KA2 are simple salts. Carry out the following experiments with solid KA1 to identify its cation and anion. (b) You are then required to carry out a few experiments to identify the cation and anion present in solid KA2. In all the experiments, the reagent should be added gradually until no further change is observed. Deduce what you can about KA1 and KA2. Observations should include details of colour changes, precipitates, and tests on gases evolved. Tests on KA1 Test (a) Add dilute hydrochloric acid to a small amount of solid KA1, then warm gently. (b) Dissolve…

Standard Solution

ABSTRACT The purpose of this experiment is to prepare a standard solution of potassium hydrogen phthalate and use titration to perform an acid/base reaction between the potassium hydrogen phthalate and sodium hydroxide to standardize approximately 0.10 M sodium hydroxide solution. To prepare the Potassium Hydrogen phthalate, a 2.00 grams of KHP was measured to an accurate measurement of 1.980 grams. A total of 100 mL of water was mixed with the KHP solution in the volumetric flask to finally prepare an acidic KHP solution. The molar mass of KHP was calculated and came to be 208.252 grams per mole. To find the moles of KHP, the mass of KHP (1.980 g) was divided by the molar mass of KHP (…

The Contact Process

The Contact Process is the name given for the manufacture of Sulphuric Acid (H2SO4(l)). There must also be specific conditions of temperature, pressure and catalyst for the reaction to occur effectively. I will also look at the effect of temperature, pressure and catalyst on the composition of the equilibrium mixture, with respect to Le Châtelier’s principle. THE PROCESS Firstly, Sulphur Dioxide (SO2(g)) is manufactured by burning Sulphur (S(s)) in air. The sulphur dioxide is then purified. S(s) + O2(g) →SO2(g) Secondly, Sulphur trioxide (SO3(g)) is produced by reacting sulphur dioxide with O2(g) over a vanadium(v) oxide, V2O5 catalyst at 450 oC and 2 atm. 2SO2(g) + O2(g) ⇌2SO3(g) Thirdly, oleum is formed by dissolving concentrated sulphuric acid in the sulphur…

The Chemistry of Hair Coloring

The first thing that comes to mind when people see hair color is “beauty. ” But, what most do not realize is that chemistry plays a major role in many everyday products. What makes the colors so pretty and attractive? How can hair color effect synthetic hair? The question I want to answer is “what are the effects of hair color on synthetic hair? ” I chose this topic because I wanted to learn how to color hair and apply it to chemistry. Hair coloring is a form of organic and inorganic chemistry. Organic chemistry involves carbon, whereas inorganic chemistry does not. Hair color is (or can be) a permanent chemical that is used to put a specific color in…

Observations of Chemical Changes

Objective: This experiment is meant to show how certain chemicals react with each other and can be identified by these reactions Procedure: Several different chemical mixtures were poured into the well plate and observed. These included sodium bicarbonate and hydrochloric acid, bromothymol blue and hydrochloric acid, ammonia and bromothymol blue, hydrochloric acid and blue dye, blue dye and sodium hypochlorite, potassium iodide and lead nitrate, sodium hydroxide and phenolphthalein, hydrochloric acid and phenolphthalein, sodium hydroxide and sliver nitrate, ammonia and silver nitrate, and ammonia and copper (II) sulfate. Some mixtures were also placed in the light or mixed with additional hydrochloric acid or dye. Observation Table: Questions: a.) Silver nitrate could easily be used to test for sodium bicarbonate since…

Lab 5 Acid/Base Extractions

The purpose of this experiment is to separate either the organic base (amine) or organic acid (carboxylic acid) from a mixture that contains inorganic impurities (salt) by performing a liquid-liquid extraction and then taking a melting point. Key Experimental Details and Observations Our starting material, Compound B, was a fine white powder and weighed 0.535g. The final product was a shiny white sheet that resembled acrylic paint and weighed 0.109g. Results Our percent yield was 0.109g/0.535g x 100 = 20.4%. Discussion and Conclusions The melting point ranges we got for compound B ranged from 110.8-114.0 °C, while the melting point range for benzoic acid is 121.0-123.0°C and 103.0-107.0°C for 4-amino acetophenone. Since the ranges we acquired for compound B are…

The Diabetes Breathalyzer

Chemists at the University of Pittsburgh have come up with a medical invention that may be available to citizens very soon. This new invention, known as the “Diabetes Breathalyzer” is a device that would be used to diagnose and monitor those with diabetes, as well as create a large stepping stone in the medical field. The chemists use a “sol-gel approach,” which is “a method for using small molecules to produce solid materials,” and “combined titanium dioxide with carbon nanotubes” (Science Daily). Using these elements successfully, the properties of the tubes as well at the powers of the titanium dioxide were combined. With the ability to use the powers of the titanium dioxide, the sensor could be activated. One of…