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Chemical Essay Topics & Paper Examples

Water resources

1) Describe the path a molecule of water might follow through the hydrologic cycle from the ocean Evaporation takes place and the water molecule is taken high up in the atmosphere, where temperatures are very low. Continued accumulation of the molecules of water saturates the air and hence rain clouds are formed though condensation process. Precipitation in the form of rainfall, snow then occurs. Where precipitation occurs depends on whether or not the clouds were transported to land by advection process, or remained in the ocean. The cycle is at this point complete and the process starts all over again. 2) to land and back again. In the case where the clouds containing the water molecules are transported to land…

Еhe chemical weapons

Regarding the issue, the article that supports the chemical weapons presented that (1) some countries particularly US developed a program that aims for uncomplicated and more accessible ways to identify biological agents, and (2) chemical weapons can be used by nations in preparation for their defense against terrorism. On the other hand, chemical weapons are opposed by the antagonist by citing that: (1) chemical weapons create destructions on civilians like what happened on the Moscow Hostage Rescue, and (2) Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) prohibits the manufacture and utilizing chemical weapons. 2. Based on the facts they have presented, the authors also handed their own opinions regarding chemical weapons. Those who supported the chemical weapons articulated that (1) large cities and…

Recrystallization lab report

Given the following solubility test results, which would be the best recrystallization solvent for Compound A? Why? Ethanol: Cold – soluble; Hot – soluble Water:Cold – insoluble; Hot – soluble Benzene:Cold – insoluble; Hot – insoluble Water would be the best recrystallization solvent for Compound A, because when doing recrystallization, it is important that the compound be very soluble at the boiling point, and hardly soluble at room temperature. If it were insoluble in hot temperatures the compound would not dissolve, where as if it was soluble in cold, crystillization would be a very unlikely process. To note, impurities should on the other hand be very soluble at room temperature and insoluble in hot solvent in order to be filtered…

Acid Base Extraction of Organic compound

Acid-base extraction is the process of purifying of an organic acid and an organic base of an organic mixture. It is the procedure using sequential liquid-liquid extraction to purify the acid and the base from the mixture based on their chemical properties and solubility of the molecular and ionic forms. Acid- base extraction is commonly performed during the work-up of a chemical reaction. The acid-base extraction procedure can also be used to separate very-weak acids from stronger acids and very-weak bases from stronger bases as long as the difference of their pKa (or pKb) constants is large enough. The major limitation of this reaction is that it is not possible to separate chemically similar acids or similar base with a…

Identification of Unknown Organic Compound by Melting Point

The main objective of this lab is to identify the given unknown organic compounds with various methods. Identification of an unknown compound is important to perform through the process of melting point (M.P), boiling point (B.P) and Infrared spectroscopy (I.R). Index of Hydrogen deficiency (IHD) and elemental analysis makes an experiment more efficient in determination of unknown compound. The color, odor, melting point and boiling point determines the physical state and properties of a compound. It also determines its volatility in respect to temperature. The functional group of a compound can be determined on a basis of a spectra formed by a NICOLET iS5 FT infrared spectrometer. The IR sample of a liquid is obtained on a pure liquid called…

Water Conclusion

In conclusion, after conducting the lab, the emergent properties of water were tested and proved. These trials and experiments were able to verify the adhesion, cohesion, polarity, temperature stabilization, solvency, and density changes exhibited by water. During the glass and wax paper lab, we observed the adhesive properties of water. When a droplet of water touched the glass, it dispersed immediately. The droplet placed on the wax paper remained intact and in droplet form. Also, when the glass and wax sheets were flipped, the water remained on the glass and fell off the wax paper. This is due to adhesion; the water molecules stuck to the glass molecules and prevented the droplet from falling when the glass was turned upside…

Privately-owned Critical Infrastructure

One privately owned infrastructure critical to the United States are chemical facilities. “The majority of Chemical Sector facilities are privately-owned: requiring DHS to work closely with the private sector and its industry associations to identify and prioritize assets, assess risk, develop and implement protective programs, and measure program effectiveness” (Department of Homeland Security, n/d, pg. ). Any attack or natural disaster at or around a chemical facility, such as a nuclear plant could be one of the most severe incidents ever. An incident at a chemical facility would affect more than just the destruction to the compound and employees, but it could also affect a community, an entire city, and other sectors that depend on a chemical facility. This is…

Percent Yield of Calcium Carbonate

The purpose of this experiment is to examine the percent yield of a precipitate in a double displacement reaction. A solution of calcium citrate and sodium carbonate were mixed together, then the products were filtered out as so only the precipitate remained. The filtered paper was then dried and the mass of the precipitate in the experiment divided by the theoretical mass of the precipitate from the calculated gave the percent yield. The percent yield that was acquired is about 69.1%. The chemical reaction that took place was that sodium displaced calcium in a solution of calcium nitrate, and that calcium displaced sodium in a solution of sodium carbonate. The resulting products were solid calcium carbonate and aqueous sodium nitrate…

U.S. Involvement in Syrian Uprising

The Syrian civil war, also known as the Syrian uprising, began on March 15, 2011. Ever since, it has been a growing armed conflict between supporters of the Ba’ath government, and rebel groups wishing to abolish it. It all began when protesters demanded the resignation of Syrian President Bashar al-Assad. Because the Syrian President declined the demand of resignation of the Syrian people, an enormous, uncontrolled peaceful uprising began. In April of 2011 the Syrian Army was deployed to control the uprising; cold-hearted soldiers fired at protestors. After months of military attacks on demonstrators, the so called “peaceful” protest in Syria turned into an armed rebellious war. Opposition forces range from enraged civilians to Syrian military soldiers, to civilian volunteers;…

Boiling point is the temperature at which the vapor pressure

Boiling point is the temperature at which the vapor pressure of the liquid is equal to the external pressure on the liquid and the liquid changes into a vapor. Melting point is the temperature at which the lattice is collapses and the solid is converted into liquid. The trend in structure is from the metallic oxides containing giant structures of ions on the left of the period via a giant covalent oxide in the middle to molecular oxides on the right. Sodium peroxide, magnesium oxide and aluminum oxide are metallic oxide which have high melting and boiling point compared to other period 3 oxide. This is due to their giant ionic structure and the strong ionic bond. Strong ionic bond…

Computerized Data Acquisition of a Second Order Reaction

The rates at which reactions occur depend on the composition and the temperature of the reaction mixture. Usually the rate of reaction is found to be proportional to the concentrations of the reactants raised to a power.1 There are many reactions that have a rate law in the form of: (1) v = k[A]a[B]b According to reference1 the power to which the concentration of a species (product or reactant) is raised in a rate law of this nature is the order of the reaction with respect to that species. In equation (1) first order with respect to [A] and first order with respect to [B]; however, the overall reaction is the sum of the individual orders. Thus we have a…

SCH4U Exam Study Notes

Electron configuration: notation that shows number and arrangement of electrons in its orbitals Infinite number of electron configurations because infinite values of n For each atom, all but one of these represents the atom in an excited state Atom’s chemical property mainly associated with its ground state electron configuration Unless otherwise stated, assume electron configuration is in its ground state Ex: 1s2 (superscript represents 2 electrons in s orbital) Aufbau principle: process of building up the ground state electronic structure for atoms (in order of atomic #) Writing electron Configurations: Provide info about first 2 quantum numbers (n and l) Ex: boron in ground state: Orbital diagram: boxes are used for each orbital Empty box represents an orbital with no…

ATomic Review Sheet

3 The atomic mass of an element is the weighted average of the masses of (1) its two most abundant isotopes(3) all of its naturally occurring isotopes (2) its two least abundant isotopes(4) all of its radioactive isotopes 4 Which statement is true about the charges assigned to an electron and a proton? (1) Both an electron and a proton are positive. (2) An electron is positive and a proton is negative. (3) An electron is negative and a proton is positive. (4) Both an electron and a proton are negative. 5 Which statement best explains why most atomic masses on the Periodic Table are decimal numbers? (1) Atomic masses are determined relative to an H–1 standard. (2) Atomic masses…

Advancement in Science and Technology Research is a peer-reviewed open access journal published quarterly

Advancement in Science and Technology Research aims at providing a platform for researchers, engineers, scientists, and educators to publish their original research results, to exchange new ideas, to disseminate information in innovative designs, engineering experiences and technological skills. It is also the Journal’s objective to promote engineering and technology education. The papers for publication in Advancement in Science and Technology Research are selected through rigorous peer reviews to ensure originality, timeliness, relevance, and readability. Advances in Science and Technology is a irregular series presenting the Proceedings of CIMTEC, International Cermics Congress and Forum on New Materials. The series is published on behalf of TECHNA GROUP, Faenza, Italy. With the second review conference of the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) approaching in…

Determining the Stoichiometry

1.) On graph paper, plot the milliliters of reactant #1 versus volume of precipitate for each reaction. For the copper chloride graph, draw the two best-fit straight lines through the data points and determine their point of intersection. Cu:PO4 stoichiometric ratio = 3:2 Balanced Equation = 3CuCl2 + 2Na3PO4 Cu3(PO4)2 + 6NaCl 2.) For the iron nitrate graph, draw the best-fit line through the ascending data, and a smooth curve through the descending data. Determine their intersection point. From the point of intersection, determine the stoichiometric mole ratio for each reaction. Write out the correct balanced equation for each reaction. Fe:OH stoichiometric ratio = 2:5 Balanced equation = 2Fe(NO3)3 + 3OH Fe2O3 + 3H(NO3) 3.) Explain how this method allows…

Hydrogen Peroxide and iodine ions

The reason for the blue-black complex is due to the formation of polyiodide chains during the reaction between starch and iodine. The amylose in starch forms helices with which the iodine molecules align, causing a transfer of charge. This charge transfer corresponds to the absorption spectrum, in which the blue-black colour is the complementary colour. The details of this reaction are not fully known yet. The strength and deepness of the colour is dependent on the amount of amylose present. 3The rate of the reaction can be explained by the collision theory, which shows that the rate can be altered by4: concentrations, pressure, temperature, intensity of radiation, particle size, surface area and a catalyst. In this experiment I will be…

Extended Experimental Investigation

Abstract: Cold packs are based on the principle of endothermic reactions, which means a reaction that absorbs heat from the surrounding resulting in a temperature drop. Due to this temperature drop, cold packs have many benefits when it comes to injuries such as sprains and strains. It cools the local tissue and reduces bleeding, swelling and pain. It also aids in a speedy recovery. The most commonly used chemical in instant cold packs is ammonium nitrate which will be tested in the investigation along with four other chemicals in water. These other chemicals include potassium nitrate, potassium chloride, sodium acetate and sodium chloride. The two lowest chemicals will then be mixed together at different concentration ratios to see if this…

Case study of the old family bank

Macro The major problem presented in this case is that The Grayson Chemical Company is experiencing a decline in earning and sales. The board of directors of the company has brought in a new company president to help in turning things around for the company. The new president now faces the enormous task of returning the company into a growth path and profitability. Micro There are also micro-problems that emerge in this case that may hinder the new president from solving the macro-problem. One of these micro-problems is an existing culture of conservatism and rigidity in running the activities of company. The new president views this culture as a challenge that may hinder him from implementing appropriate strategies for turning…

Introduction to Chemical Engineering

Chapter 1: Introduction to Chemical Engineering Profession Teach (T) Students are exposed to a topic. No explicit learning objectives. No major activities such as assignments, exercises of projects. No assessment is linked to this topic. Use (U) There is an explicit learning objective. Compulsory activities such as assignments, exercises or projects are specifically linked to this topic. Students are assessed and received feedback, it may or may not affect grade Assess (A) Students are assumed to already have some proficiency in the topic. It is utilized mainly to learn and/or assess other learning objectives. Chapter 1: Introduction to Chemical Engineering Profession Primary job functions Design: Converts concepts and information into detailed plans and specifications that dictate the development and manufacturing…

Enzyme Activity Lab

Hypothesis: 1) If the disk is placed into each beaker with 100 units/ml of enzyme solution, then the time for the disk to float will be 30 seconds. 2) If the temperature of the solution is at 5 degrees Celsius, then there will be less enzymes binding to the active site, and if temperature is at 37 degrees Celsius, then the reaction rate of the enzymes will be 3 times the previous temperature’s reaction rate. 3) If the disk placed into each beaker of the substrate, then the time for the disk to float will take longer, like 1-2 minutes. Discussion/Analysis: 1) How does enzyme activity vary with enzyme concentration? The rate of enzyme activity increases as the enzyme concentration…

Anti Head Lice

Abstract. The present study focused on the separation and identification of the active compounds against head lice from the hexane extract of Annona squamosa L seed. Chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques revealed that two major compounds of the hexane seed extract were oleic acid and triglyceride with one oleate ester. The yields of these compounds were 13.25% and 7.74% dry weight, respectively. The compounds were tested in vitro against head lice, comparing to the crude hexane extract of the seed. The triglyceride with one oleate ester and the crude hexane extract diluted with coconut oil 1:1. These compounds were found to kill all tested head lice in 49, 11 and 30 minutes, respectively. The triglyceride ester can be used as a…