With the progress of history, the definition, content, method and characteristic of management is in constant development. The history of management theory and idea is evolving. Between the twentieth century and twenty first century, the environment of management has been changed from stable and predictable to unending changeable. According to Kiechel’s (2012) theory, with the definite law, principle and regulation, management belong to a real science system.
In this essay, two topics will be discussed. The first one is management theories and ideas have changed over time with two factors which are the transformation of labor were treated from machine to human and the connection between organization and external environment. The second one is the three most important differences between now and then. The three differences are increasingly fierce competition, personalized customer demand and how to improve competitiveness.
The development of management theory and practice are closely related. Management theory is based on the understanding of management system and frame after summarized the experience from the accumulation management. However, this understanding also leads to the management practice. First of all, the transformation of labor were treated from machine to human is one factor. After the mid nineteen twenties the human relations theory and behavior management theory began to pay attention to “human” has many special factors different from the “objects”.
On the “human” factor, first of all should be attributed to Mayo and his in the test of Hawthorne factory. Hawthorne test is a management test of Mayo by Hawthorne telephone factory which belong to Western Electric Company in the United States. Testing began in 1924 and Mayo conducted a series of surveys, tests and interviews. After that, the summary from Mayo (1933) of human psychological factors and social factors has great impact on the production efficiency. The staff is “social person”; they need social psychology rather than simply the pursuit of income and material.
Therefore, the managers of the enterprise should not only focus on the technical and economic factors of management, but also improve labor productivity from the social and psychological aspects to encourage workers. Volberda (2012) has said that expect formal organization, there are some informal ones. Informal organization is spontaneous formation by nature from the people contact. However, people’s behavior from the informal organization is always following the emotional logic —— character decides relationship.
The external environment become connects to organization. Some of manager’s work on employees by coerces punishment and fire to increase the stress of them. The strict supervision and control mode to staff actually reflected in Taylor’s scientific management service and the traditional management mode.
The others the others has concept of management that will be advocated management method which is people oriented by human, tolerant, democratic in management behavior. The objectives of the organization are combined individual objectives well and create favorable conditions for employees to develop the wisdom and potential.
Then, there are three most important differences between now and then which increasingly fierce competitions, personalized customer demand and how to improve competitiveness. Firstly, with the liberalization policy, business globalization and capital operation mode, the regional and industry boundaries were abolished which makes the competition more intense. That leads to the difference by increasingly fierce competitions. With the opinion of Parker (2005), a long time ago, the research which based on strategic alliances and joined ventures was found.
Cooperation and competition were founded to be a virtue and he analysis that competition is good to become to cooperation which is a good idea from the growing global economic. Secondly, Customers become the dominant force in the market by the expansion of product pile up in excessive requirement and income gap which leads to customer demand for personalized. Abrahamson (1966) suggested that, change is a global effect; the customer is more sensitive on the quality of the product or service. Managers should seek a new technology to help them handle new conditions which is the performance gap caused by environmental changes.
Finally, with the widely used of the development of science and technology and information technology, lots of things could be done which may not be done easily. So the traditional management mode faces the enormous challenge.
Moreover, by Rodrigues(2001)’ theory, the development of effective management skills to deal with specific problems and challenges of each organization in the global competitive environment is to make a frame work. The urgent need of many enterprises and organizations are rapid changes in technology and the environment. Today, the new trend of training and development organizations around the world are dealt within their own organization.
In order to achieve networked, flat, flexible, effective development skills, specific challenges different new organizations of their mission and objectives of the organizations all over the word. Effective management skills help people and organizations to improve its effectiveness and efficiency. The rapid development of globalization and technology shows that we are in fierce competition. Proper management is crucial to the complex environment.
The quality manager and effective management style can determine the organizational culture with productive employees and ultimately, success or failure. Managers should encourage, guide, supervise, motivate employee and coordination capacity to promote action and guide change his leadership and other training manager. Management and utilization planning, organization and communication skills are important leadership, more in quality such as integrity, honesty, courage, commitment, sincerity, enthusiasm, determination, compassion and sensitivity.
In conclusion, management theories and ideas have changed over time with two factors which are the transformation of labor were treated from machine to human and the connection between organization and external environment. At the same time, there are three most important differences between now and then.
The three differences are increasingly fierce competition, personalized customer demand and how to improve competitiveness. Twenty first Century for humans is a new age, we need according to the new rules to face and the formation of new rules depends on innovation which is the foundation of learning. Finally, Learning and innovation is the key in twenty first Century to deal with the environmental change.
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