EXILE IN DAPITAN
Arrival in manila. Rizal and his sister Lucia arrived in Manila at nooon of Sunday, June 26, 1892, on board the small steamer Don Juan. The met by s platoon of carabineers and their commander. While the carabineers were inspecting their luggage, a captain and sergeant of the Guardia Civil Veterana (Manila Police), both in disguise, watched the inspection procedings. After the customs inspection, Rizal and his sister were allowed to go.
The Founding of the Lega Filipina. The succeeding days saw Rizal a very busy man. His presence in Manila caused a sensation among the Filipinos who were all eaaager to see him and talk with him. On the other hand, the Spaniard were woried, fearful of his grat popularity.
1. To unite whole archipelago into one compact and homogeneous body. 2. Mutual protection in every want and necessity.
3. Defense against all violence and injustice.
4.Encouragement of instruction, agriculture and commerce.
5. Study and applicant of reform.
Deportation to Dapitan. On July 7, 1892, Rizal was summoned to Malacanan. Governor Despujol asked him if he still wanted to go back to Hongkong. Rizal replied in the affirmative.
July 7, 1892, Governor Despujol’s decee depirting Rizal to an island in the south was published by the Gaceta de Manila, a newspaper in Manila. This gubernatorial decree recited the reason for Rizal’s deportation, as follow:
1.Rizal had published books and articles abroad whitch showed disloyalty to Spain and whitch were “frankly anti-Catholic” and “imprudently anti-friar.” 2.A new hours after his arrival in Manila “there was found in one of the packages. . .a bundle of handbills entitled ‘Pobres Frailes’ in which the patient and humble generosity of Filipinos is satirized, and which accusation is published agaist the customs of the religious order.” 3.His novel El Filibusterismo was dedicated to the memory of the three ‘traitors’ (Burgos,Gomez,and Zamora), and on the title page he wrote that in view of the vices and errors of the spanish administration, “the only salvation for the Philippines was separation from the mother country.” 4.”The end which he pursues in his efforts and writings is to tear from the loyal Filipino breasts the treasures of our holy Catholic faith.”
Rizal in Dapitan. The ship which brought Rizal to Dapitan also carred a letter by Fr.Pablo Pastells, Superior of the Jesuit Societyin the Philippinse, to Fr.Antonio Obanch, Jesuit missionary of Dapitan . In this letter, Father Pastells informed the missionarry that Rizal could live in the Jesuit mission house on the following conditions;
1. “That Rizal publicly retract his errrors concerning religion, and make satements that were clearly pro-Spanish and against revolution. 2. “That he perform the church rites and make general confession of his past life. 3. “That henceforth he conduct himself in an exemplaly manner as a Spanish subject and a man of religion.
Rizal-Pastells Debate on Religion. During his exile in Dapitan, Rizal had a long and scholary debate by correspondence with Father Pastells on religion . It started when Father Pastells sent a book by Sarda to Rizal, witch an advice that the latter (Rizal) should desist from his foolishness (majaderias) in trying to view religion from the prism of individual judgment and self-esteem.
Four letters written by Rizal as follows: (1)September 1, 1892; (2)November 11, 1892; (3)January 9, 1893; and (4)April 4, 1893; and in Father Pastells’ replies date: (1)October 12, 1892, (2)December 8, 1892; (3)February 2, 1893; and (4)April (no exact date), 1893.
Useful and Peaceful Life. In Dapitan, Rizal led an exemplary life, fruitful of achievements and idyllic in serenity.
Describing his life in Dapitan,Rizal wrote to Blumentritt on December 19, 1893:
I shall tell you how we live here. I have three house: one square, another hexagonal, and a third octagonal , all of bamboo, wood, and nipa. In the square house we live , mother, sister Trinidad, a nephew and I : in the octagonal live my boys or some good youngsters whom I teach arithmetic, Spanish, and English; and in the hexagonal live my chickens. From my house I hear the murmur of a crystal clear brook which comes from the high rocks: I see the seashore, the sea where I have small boats, two canoes or barotos, lanzones, guayabanos, baluno, nanka, etc. I have rabbits, dogs, cats, etc. I rise early at five visit my plants, feed the chicken, aweken my people and put them in movement . At half-past seven we breakfast with tea, pasties, cheese, sweatmeats, etc. Later I treat my poor patients, who come to my land; I dress, go to the town in my baroto, treat the people there , and retur at 12, when my luncheon awaits me. Then I teach the boys until 4 p.m and devote the afternoon to agriculture. I spend the night reading and studying.
As Physician in dapitan. Rizal practised medicine in Dapitan.
In August, 1893 his mother and sister (Maria) arrive in Dapitan and live with him for one year and a half. For the third time, Rizal operated on his mother’s eyes. The operation was succesful, but Dona Teodora, ignoring her son’s instructions, removed the bandages from her eyes, therby causing the wound to be infected. Rizal as Engineer. Rizal held the title of expert surveyor (perito agrimensor), which he obtained from the Ateneo.
An American engineer, Mr. H. F. Cameron, praised Rizal’s engineering feat in the following words:
Another famous and well-known water supply is that of Dapitan, Mindanao, designed and constructed by Dr.Rizal during his banishment in that municipality by the Spanish authorities. . . This supply comes from a little mountain stream across the river from Dapitan and follows the contour of the country for the whole distance. When one considers that Doctor Rizal had no explosives witch which to blast the hard rocks and no resources save his own ingenuity, one cannot help but honor a man who , against adverse condition, had the courage and tenacity to construct the aqueduct which had for its bottom the flutted tiles from the house roofs, and was covered with conrcete made from lime burned from the sea coral.
The length of this aqueduct is several kilometers, and it winds in and out among the rocks and is carrried across gullies in bamboo pipes upheld by rocks or brick piers to the distribution reservoir. Civic Projects for Dapitan. When Rizal arrived in Dapitan, he was sad to see it-dirty, unkempt , and unprogressive. He decided to improve it, to the best of his God-given talents, and to awaken the civic consciousness of its people. He wrote to Fr. Pastells; ” I want to do all that I can for this town.” Contributions to Science. Rizal found Mindanao a rich virgin field for collecting specimens.
Rizal discovered some rare specimens which were named in his honor by the scientists. Among these were Draco rizali (a flying dragon), Apogonia rizali (a small beetle) and Rhacophorus rizali (a rare frog.) Rizal also conducted anthropological, ethnographical, archaeological, geological and geographical studies, as revealed by his voluminous correspondence with his scientist friends in Europe. Linguistic Studies. A born linguist, Rizalcontinued his studes of languages in Dapitan. He wrote a Tagalog gramar, made a comparative study of the Bisayan andMalayan languuages, and studied the Bisayan (Cebuan) and Subanun languages. Artistic Works in Dapitan.
Rizal continued his artistic pursuits in Dapitan . He contributed his [ainting skill to the Sisters of Charity who were preparing the sanctuary of the Holy Virgin in their private chapel. Rizal as Farmer. In Dapitan Rizal devoted much of his time to agriculture. Rizal as Businessman. Aside from farming, Rizal engaged in business. In partnership with Ramon Carreon, a Dapitan mechant, he made profitable business ventures in fishing, copra, and hemp industries. He invited his relatives, particularly Saturnina and Hidalgo to come to Mindanao, for there” is vast and ample field for business” in the island.
Rizal as Inventor. One little-known fact about Rizal was that he was also an inventor. It should be remembered that in 1887, while practising medicine in Calamba, he invented a cigarette lighter which he sent as a gift to Blumentritt. He called itsulpukan. Rizal and Josephine Bracken. In the silent hours of the night after the day’s hard work, Rizal was often sad. He missed his family and relatives, his good friends in foreign lands, the exhilarating life in the cities of
Europe, and his happy days in Calamba. The death of Leonor Rivera on August 28, 1893 left a poignant void in his heart. He needed somebody to cheer him up in his lonely exile. Rizal and the Katipunan. While Rizal was mourning the loss of his son, ominous clouds of revolution gradually darkened Philippine skies. Andres Bonifacio, the” Great plebeian,” was sowing the seeds of an armed uprising. The secret revolutionary society, called Katipunan, which he founded on July 7, 1892, was gaining more and more adherents.
Volunteers as Military Doctor in Cuba. Months before the Katipunan contracted him, Rizal had offered his services as military doctor in Cuba, which was then in the throes of revolution and where there was shortage of physicians to minister to the needs of the Spanish troops and the Cuban people.