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Cellular Components Essay

1 What cellular components do some bacterial cells have that make them powerful pathogens? Explain your answer. Pili that allows the structure to attach onto other cells like a leech. The capsule which protects the cells from the white blood cells that attack foreign invaders. Endospores which allow them to survive rough conditions.

2 Why are penicillins often more effective against Gram positive bacteria than Gram negative bacteria? It is more effective against Gram positive because it has only one layer of the cytoplasmic membrane whereas the Gram negative bacteria has two layers of the member which makes it harder for the penicillin to synthesize.

3 Why is it important to understand the structure of a bacterial cell when developing an antibiotic? The cell structure provides an insight on what proteins and enzymes that create the cell wall. Which allows the scientist to develop the chemicals that can destroy the proteins and enzyme that create the cell wall, therefore killing the cells.

4 How do antibiotics work without harming the surrounding human cells? Antibiotics work by using a metabolic pathway necessary for bacterial life, but not for human life. They also target cell walls, which eukaryotic cells don’t have which is what is in humans so our cells remain unharmed.

1. What class of antibiotics would you prescribe for Sue? Explain your answer. I would prescribe Sue sulfa drugs. The bacteria is a Gram negative so penicillin would be difficult to infiltrate the cell wall. The others are within the cells. So Sulfa drugs would be best.

2. Why are antibiotics NOT effective against viruses? (Think back to what you learned about viruses in PBS.) Antibiotics are drugs that are used to treat infections brought about by bacteria. They do not have effect on viruses as viruses are non-living and have different components compared to bacteria. They kill bacteria by disrupting the DNA as well as the cell wall bacteria.

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