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Cell Essay Topics & Paper Examples

How Is the Structure of Cells Related to Their Function

Cell structures come in various shapes and sizes dependent on their location within an organism and what life sustaining process it carries out. These can range from the globular protein of a red blood cell, designed to carry four oxygen molecules at a time to the tail like flagellum of a bacteria designed for mobility and penetration of organs within a body. There are two main types of cells, eukaryotic cells which are generally plant and animal cells and prokaryotic cells, which relate to organisms such as bacteria and fungi, which undergo asexual reproduction. They both contain organelles such as ribosomes and mitochondria for functions such as protein synthesis and producing ATP from an energy source such as glucose. There…

Osmosis: Cell Wall and Sodium Chloride Solution

* Get a single layer of plant cells. If you are using red onion, cut a 1 cm square from a fleshy piece of onion and then peel off a single layer of the red cells. If you are using rhubarb, peel a piece from the epidermis. If you are using toadflax peel a piece of the lower epidermis of a leaf. * Place the strip on a slide and cover it with a drop or two of distilled water. Add a cover slip. * Look at the cells through a microscope. Start with the low power lens. Draw and label 3 plant cells. * Take another strip of cells from your plant material. This time mount the cells on…

Cell Phone Radiation

In today’s society there have been numerous advancements to help us in our everyday lives. One of this advancement is cell-phones, which is one of the greatest development in technology. We have become dependent on mobiles phones and it seem like a high percentage of the population including elderly people, young adult and even kids under 18 have one of this devices. There are numerous advantages and disadvantages related to cell phones. In one hand there is the importance of being communicated for emergencies, business, social and personal purposes. On the other hand, the usage of cell phone had become addictive to people of all around the world and the abuse of prolongated hours on the cell phones can cause…

Egg Cell

The egg cell is the female gamete used for sexual reproduction. The egg cell is responsible for providing half of the genetic material required for reproduction. When the egg cell joins with the sperm cell…. The egg cell is large and bulky structure which allows the sperm cell to get in easily. WHAT ORGANELLES DOES AN EGG CELL HAVE AND THEIR FUNCTION? Mitochondria: Produces energy for the cell by a process called cell respiration. Cytoplasm: All organelles inside the cell are suspended in the cytoplasm. The cytoplasm is mostly water which allows the organelle to move around. It fills the interior of the cell. Vacuole: Are storage bubbles they store food, nutrients and waste. They also maintain internal fluid pressure…

Cell Transport Mechanisms and Permeability

The cell is invaluable building block of all biological life on this planet, and one of its most important and unique characteristics is its ability to be selectively permeable with its plasma membrane. This outer membrane’s sophisticated mechanisms of transport through its bilayer are vital in maintaining homeostasis in the cell and the entire body. To further understand these mechanisms, which can be further described as passive and active transport, five experiments were conducted. These tests were done over simple diffusion, facilitated diffusion, osmosis, filtration, and active transport by changing and observing different variables and how they affect transport through the membrane. Obtained was the understanding of the changing of the molecular weight cut off in a membrane, and how…

Animal vs Plant Cells

Animal and Plant cells consist of most of the same cell types, but the whole shape of the cell is quite different. An animal cell is a round, uneven shape, whereas the Plant cell has an affixed shape. They have a more of a rectangular shape. Chloroplast, Vacuole and the Cell wall are only found in Plant cells. The Chloroplast is the organelle for the whole system of Photosynthesis. Chloroplasts are found in mesophyll cells (which are found in the leaves) of green plants. They convert light into energy; therefore the energy is the plant’s food. The chemical in Chloroplast is called ‘Chlorophyll’; this is the chemical that generates the process of photosynthesis. Vacuoles are found in Animal cells as…

Blood Buffer

Objectives: After completing this exercise and reading the corresponding material in your text, you should be able to 1. Prepare a wet mount slide 2. Identify structures described in this lab on slides 3. Cite examples of the wide diversity of cell types 4. Relate differences in structure among cells to functional differences Introduction Structurally and functionally, all living things share one common feature: all living organisms are composed of cells. The development of this concept began with Robert Hooke’s seventeenth-century observation that slices of cork were made up of small units he called “cells.” Over the next 100 years, the cell theory emerged. It was formally (and independently) presented by Schleiden and Schwann in 1839, and clarified by Virchow…

Osmosis and Dialysis

Using dialysis tubing to model diffusion of a cell membrane and investigating the influence of solute concentration on osmosis Purpose * Discover how dialysis tubing diffuses the cell membrane * Explore the effect of solute concentration on osmosis Background A cell membrane is a very significant function in the human body. In one sense, it is used as a barrier to keep the enzymes, DNA, and metabolic pathways that bundles everything together. Cell membranes are also used as a gateway for waste projects that must be discharged and essential materials (oxygen, water, etc.) must enter through it. When a membrane is called semipermeable, it means that it will allow certain molecules or ions to pass through it by diffusion and…

A Terrible Beauty Is Born

“A terrible beauty is born“, this line is taken from the excellent poem “Easter 1916” by William Butler Yeats. W.B Yeats uses these words to describe the Easter Rising which resulted in the death of fifteen republican leaders along with their comrades. These events in Irish history have brought celebration but also a great deal of sorrow which Yeats describes perfectly with this clever oxymoron – A terrible beauty. A lot has changed since “Easter 1916” was written, yet its words have remained relevant to even the issues of today’s world. I personally believe that cloning and stem cell use are the modern days terrible beauties. Fifty years ago we did not even know what a gene was, although today…

The Basic Unit of Life

One of the hallmark characteristics of living things is that they perform chemical reactions. These reactions are collectively known as metabolism. Cells, the basic units of life, can perform many of these metabolic reactions. In a multicelled organism, the cells group together to form tissues that perform the same functions. Tissues group together to form organs, and finally, several organs exist together in a system. In this lesson, we will see how and why this hierarchy is established. The Basic Unit of Life All organisms from the smallest single-celled protists to huge whales and giant redwood trees are based on tiny microscopic cells. The types and number of cells may vary, but the cell is the basic unit of life….

Biology Notes Class

Cells were first discovered by Robert Hooke in 1665. Leeuwenhoek (1674), with the improved microscope, discovered the free living cell in pond water for first time. Robert Brown in 1831 discovered the nucleus in the cell. Purkinje in 1839 coined the term ‘protoplasm’ for the fluid substance of the cell. The cell theory that all plants and animals are composed of cells and that the cell is the basic unit of life, was presented by two biologists, Schleiden (1838) and Schwann (1839). The cell theory was further expanded by Virchow (1855) by suggesting that all cells arise from pre-existing cells. With the discovery of electron microscope in 1940, it was possible to observe and understand the complex structure of the…

Mid Term Review

1. For each pair of terms, explain the differences in their meanings. A. Diffusion, osmosis Diffusion is the process where molecules move from a region of high concentration to a region of low concentration. Osmosis is basically the same, but with water. B. cell division, mitosis Cell division is part of mitosis, when a cell splits into two. Mitosis has more steps than just cell division. C. facilitated diffusion, active transport Active transport is where a cell uses energy to move molecules. Facilitated diffusion is the same as diffusion, just when they pass through integral proteins. D. endocytosis, exocytosis Endocytosis is when useful nutrients are put into a cell. Exocytosis is when useful materials are removed from the cell. Multiple…

Cell Analogy – Mall

Cell Membrane – The cell membrane protects the inside of the cell from outside containments, keeps the cell in contact and maintains its shape. This relates to mall security guards. They’re job is to protect the mall, make sure everything is intact and everybody is safe. Without the cell membrane, containments could enter, the security guards do the same. Without them, bad people or things could happen in the mall. Cell Wall – The cell wall provides structural support and protection to the cells, and prevents water from entering the cell. The walls and exterior of the mall do the same job. They prevent water, snow and hot or cold air from entering. They also offer structural support. Cytoplasm –…

Government Funding Stem Cell Research

Stem cell research is a relatively new science that is the source of much medical promise yet much controversy as well. The type of stem cells required, embryonic stem cells, are only obtainable one way: through the destruction of human embryos. In 1996, the Dickey-Wicker Amendment was passed, making the government unable to fund any research where human embryos are created or destroyed. At first the amendment was a minor obstacle the government had to work around to still get the stem cell scientists the money they needed. It wasn’t until August 23, 2010 that Judge Lamberth’s ruling halted all government funding for stem cell research. Today, stem cell research does not receive government funds as the research, though potentially…

Tour of Penncellvania Cellsburg

Im a tourist as you can see, but I will be taking you on a tour of Penncellvania Cellsburg. Penncellvania Cellsburg is a beautiful and amazing city just off the Mediterranean Sea. Also, everything in the city relates to cells, as we will learn on our tour today. Today the tour is about cells relating to the parts of a city. Over to the right is the entrance to the city limits, the city limits is, the limits of the area occupied by a city or town, our city limits goes passed the Cellsburg highway to the cell warehouse and you will find the entrance to the city limits. The city limits go pretty far. Also, the cellular lark protects…

Red Onion Cell Lab

The passage of water molecules through a selectively permeable membrane is a special case of diffusion known as osmosis. Osmosis results in the movement of water from an area of lower concentration of dissolved material to an area of higher concentration of dissolved material. For a demonstration of this principle, a purple onion cell is going to be bathed in different concentrations of salt (NaCl) water. Problem: How do solutions of various salt concentrations influence osmosis in relation to an onion cell? Hypothesis What will happen to the onion cell if it is placed in salt water? What will happen to the onion cell if it is placed in distilled water? If ..the onion cell is placed in salt water…

Cells Biological

I) Observation of starch grains 1. A potato was cut by using a cork barrier to obtain a piece of it. 2. The small piece of potato was placed on the centre of the glass slide and enough pressure was applied with fingers to squeeze it until small amount of juice was force out. The piece of potato was discarded leaving the juice behind on the glass microscope slide. 3. A drop of water was added to the potato juice and the glass slide was then covered with a clean cover slip. 4. The slide was examined: under low power (10X), then high power (40X). A drawing of 4-6 starch grains was made to illustrate the shape and other observable…

Vertebrate Zoology Study Guide

I. Taxonomy 1. Reasons for Taxonomy a. means of providing a systematic framework with which to work when studying the varied life forms inhabiting this earth b. establishes order from chaos c. Provides a system of nomenclature with which you label items (organisms) d. necessary when imagining trying to gather information on an unfamiliar organism e. Meant to provide a useful, convenient system using all evolutionary, adaptational, and anatomical aspects to classify 2. Carl Linnaeus: Swedish Scientist (1707-1778) a. first person to truly systemize taxonomy b. identified 236 different animal species, although classification based largely on morphology (based on structure) c. lead to “inspiring” the study of classification 3. Factors used in Classification a. system=hierarchial  b. must be able to…

Anti-Cancer Drug Screening in Vitro

Introduction: The incidences of cancer remain high despite advances in our understanding of cancer. Cancer is a class of diseases characterized by out of control cell growth. Normal cells are constantly subject to signals that control whether the cell should divide, differentiate into another cell or die. Cancer cells develop a degree of independence from these signals, which results in uncontrolled growth and proliferation. If this proliferation is allowed to continue and spread, it can be fatal (1). Almost 90% of cancer-related deaths are due to metastasis – the complex process of tumor spread through the lymphatic system or bloodstream. The emergence of genomic technologies holds therapeutic potential for personalized cancer management. Personalized cancer management combines standard chemotherapy and radiation…

Cell Theory and Knowledge and Understanding

Explain how the advance in technology allowed the progressive accumulation of knowledge and understanding of the cell theory The technological advancements, in the scientific field, have opened opportunities for scientists to accumulate knowledge and understanding of the cell theory and have thus provided justification to the living organisms that exist. Notably, prior to the proposal of the cell theory, limited knowledge and understanding of what humans comprised of was evident and thus the theory of spontaneous generation was brought forth. This theory, which has been disproved by Virchow in 1855, suggests that living matter arouses spontaneously from non-living matter. As a consequence of limited technology, many people believed this theory as technological inventions like the light compound microscope, which showed…

Apoptosis – Short Essay

Kerr, Wyllie, and Currie first used the term apoptosis in a paper in 1972 to describe a morphologically distinct form of cell death, although certain components of the apoptosis concept had been described years previously. Our understanding of the mechanisms involved in the process of apoptosis in mammalian cells transpired from the investigation of programmed cell death that occurs during the development of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans (Horvitz, 1999). In this organism 1090 somatic cells are generated in the formation of the adult worm, of which 131 of these cells undergo apoptosis or “programmed cell death.” These 131 cells die at particular points during the development process, which is invariant between worms, demonstrating the accuracy and control in this system….

Skeletal Muscle: Role of L-Carnitine

Instructions: You may work together on this assignment and turn it in as a group or individually. You will need to use resources such as the internet in addition to your textbook and the article to answer all the questions below. Allow enough time to read and thoroughly answer each question – I will be reading your answers very closely!! General Questions 1.What is the purpose of this study? The purpose of this study is to find out the effect of L-carnitine on the activities of electron transport chain in young and aged rats. 2.What are the main conclusions of this study? The conclusion is that carnitine may prevents free radicals mediated mitochondrial membrane damages and increases the electron flow…

Cloning & Genetic Engineering

Imagine a future earth where genetic diseases such as autism have been eradicated. No children are born blind, deaf or handicapped. An accident victim who looses a limb no longer needs to be handicapped, a cancer patient can have his internal organs replaced as they fail, an HIV patient can have all new blood he needs. This is a world made possible by genetic engineering and cloning. But is this new technology a gift sent from god for the betterment of humanity? Or is it a test, like Pandora’s box, to see if we can resist the temptation of playing god? I believe that, if properly legislated, genetic engineering and cloning can revolutionize our society and bring us to a…

Flow Cytometry

1. Introduction 1.1. Flow Cytometry – Definition Flow cytometry is a powerful technique for the analysis of multiple parameters of individual cells within heterogeneous populations. Flow cytometers are used in a wide range of applications, such as immunophenotyping, cell counting and reporter gene (e.g. green fluorescence protein (GFP)) expression analysis [1]. This simultaneous parametric model analysis of the physical and/or chemical characteristics is obtained by passing thousands of cells per second through a laser beam and capturing the light of each cell as it passes through it. The data gathered can be analyzed statistically by flow cytometer software to report cellular characteristics such as complexity, size, phenotype or viability, as well to purify populations of interest with Fluorescence-activated cell sorting…

The extracellular matrix or ECM

Using synthetic foam type materials to mimic the natural process – known as the extracellular matrix or ECM – scientists, from the University of Sheffield and University of California San Diego, created the random stickiness required for stem cells to properly adhere. The findings will better inform researchers across the world of how to make their biomaterials appropriately sticky for stem cells to grow. Previous attempts to recreate the process have managed only a uniform spread of sticky cells meaning there isn’t the maximum hindering the stem cells maturation into tissue cells. Professor Giuseppe Battaglia of the University’s Department of Biomedical Science said: “We used two polymers, one that is sticky and one that is not, which separate from each…

Downstream Processing

Student should be able to Define filtration, centrifugation, cell disruption, solvent extraction, chromatography, membrane process, action of force field, evaporation & drying Explain briefly on the concept of each topics stated above List out the uses & importance of each topic stated Introduction Each stage in the overall recovery procedure is strongly dependent on the history & quality of the biological production process. Maximization of production can lead to great difficulties in down streaming and recently more attention is being paid to overall process optimization. E.g. maximization of product flow from downstream process. Fermentation parameter factors affecting the DSP The location of the product (intracellular or extracellular) will define the initial separation steps and purification strategy. The stability of the…

Trisomy 13 Syndrome

Trisomy 13, also known as Patau Syndrome, is a chromosomal abnormality where an individual has an extra chromosome 13. Trisomy 13 was first recognized by Patau and his colleagues in 1960 (Matthews, 1999). It affects approximately 1 in 12,000 births and is the least common of the trisomy syndromes, after trisomy 18 and trisomy 21 (Down syndrome). An abnormality of the chromosome occurs when mitosis or meiosis does not happen correctly. During mitosis, when the cells are dividing, chromosomes are either lost or gained. The chromosomes do not separate evenly. When the distribution of chromosomes during cell division occurs after the egg is fertilized by the sperm, mosaicism occurs. The fetus will have 47 chromosomes in some cells and 46…

Human Body Systems

The human cell is said to be a living thing because it is a basic functional unit of any living organism. Thus it performs the most detailed functions like energy generation, facilitating tissues functions, hence organism control. Body cells feed, grow, respire, excrete and can die. A cell is the smallest basic unit of life. It is made up of chemical substances such as atoms, ions and molecules that are important for life. The body is made up of different types on cell. For instance, egg cell, muscle cell, rode cells found in the eye, sperm cell, hair cell and nerve cell. Each of these different types of cell performs different functions in the body of the organism. Different cells…

Cell Transport

There are two types of cell transport mechanisms. These types of transports are passive and active transport. The difference between active and passive is that passive does not require energy and active does require energy. The reason passive does not require energy is because it travels down a concentration gradient. On a concentration gradient molecules naturally move from high to low concentration. In active transport, molecules move from low to high concentration. There are three different types of transports for passive and two types of transports for active. The three types of passive transports are diffusion, osmosis, and facilitated diffusion. The two types of active transports are endocytosis, and exocytosis. Passive transport does not require ATP, also known as energy….

Osmosis and celery lab experiment

Diffusion is simply the net movement of atoms or molecules from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration. The force behind the movement is heat or kinetic energy (also called Brownian motion). Diffusion occurs when you spill water on the carpet floor and it spreads out, or when you open a bottle of perfume and it leaves the bottle and spreads throughout the air in the room. Osmosis is a similar phenomenon that moves water from a region of high water concentration to a region of low water concentration. Imagine that a cell from your body is placed in a solution of water. If the concentration of the water inside the cell is the same as…