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Causality Essay Topics & Paper Examples

Frankfurt on Personhood and Moral Responsibility

In Harry Frankfurt’s philosophy journal on “Personhood and Moral Responsibility” he formulates many ideas of how people should act. He believes a person is morally responsible for what he has done, only if he could have done otherwise. A person could have done otherwise if the casual determinism is false, and therefore they are not morally responsible. According to Frankfurt, to be a person, one must have a second-order desire. A second-order desire is a desire about a first-order desire, that they yearn to have or not have a certain desire of the first order, and a first-order desire is one that is more than a desire, it is more if one wants to do or not do something. Frankfurt…

Teen Stress

In modern life,when the standard of living is increasing more and more,people or student will get more stressed.Stress can be defined as physiological imbalance resulting from the disparity between situational demand and the individual ability ( Gaurav,2011 ) .In general, stress is related to both external and internal factor.External factor iclude the physical environment such as our job,challanges but internal factor is influence our ability to handle stress such as emotional well being. There are many cause of teen stress such as studying,working,financial problem and family problem. The most serious of stress among the teen is studying( Elizabeth,2012 ).Student always getting stress when they are doing exercise and homework given by lecturer at the last minutes. They also getting stress…

We Are Not Responsible for Our Actions

Critically asses the view that we are not responsible for our actions Is it true that the society we live in, we have the right to make and produce our own decisions and its purely down to each individual to any actions they produce? In this essay I will explore if we have the right to be responsible for any action we take. Some may believe its down to God and his decisions, obviously, this cannot be proved, however surely each human have the right to be responsible for any actions. This question comes down to; do we have free will or is it determinism? A key case which questioned this question would be the Darrow trial. Successfully, the Lawyer…

UNICEF wages guerilla warfare

Question 1: Do you think UNICEF’s campaigns will be effective? Why or Why not? I believe UNICEF’s campaign will not be as effective, given the fact that is hard to compete with other companies with more sophisticated and more economic advantages. We all know that if a product is bad but with the right marketing tactics it will attract people’s attention and gain great demand. It is difficult for UNICEF to compete with the many other companies that fill people’s wants. Question 2: Guerilla marketing tactics deliberately intend to “ambush” consumer in public places. Is this an effective marketing technique, or is it a violation of our right to go about our business undisturbed? Do these tactics intrude on our…

Elephantiasis Disorder

Elephantiasis is usually caused by obstructions in the lymphatic system. It causes a swelling in the skin and tissues, generally in the lower trunk and the legs. It is most likely seen in the legs and genitals, causing baggy, thick and ulcerated skin, accompanied by fever and chills. Limbs can swell so much that they will resemble an elephants front leg in size, texture and even color. Elephantiasis has two main forms. Lymphatic filariasis is the most common form, caused by a parasitic disease just from a bite from a little infected mosquito. This form of Elephantiasis is caused by a parasite, most commonly called roundworms. The parasite blocks the lymphatic vessels, inhibiting their ability to drain the affected area….

Types of Introductory Paragraphs

According to world statistics, the level of air pollution has been steadily increasing throughout the years. Though the result is not alarming, it is important for us to take measures in controlling activities that lead to air pollution. Only by doing so, will we be able to have better quality air. Therefore, the first thing to do is to find out what causes air pollution and its outcomes. Based on my observation there are two major causes and effect of air pollution. Type: Anecdotal Topic 2: Arguments I used to live next door to a couple who always argued. They argued over even the smallest matter. Sometimes, they argued the whole day, and sometimes the argument even continued to the…

Utilitarianism – Suffering

Given the scenario of the mad scientist, a utilitarian approach would suggest that because the outcome of the biochemical produced a cure causing thousands of lives to be saved, then this may make him a good person. The result of this biochemical produced happiness for the masses by saving lives and curing disease. Considering the principle of utilitarianism is pleasure of the masses, the result of his actions would now be considered moral due to the amount of happiness that was produced. Although this may be a simple explanation of the scenario, other factors must be taken into account, such as the scientist’s intent, the lack of pleasure that the scientist received, and the pleasure of the masses for punishing…

Ayer, A.J. “Freedom and Necessity”

In the following paper I will talk about A.J. Ayer’s “Freedom and Necessity,” and I will explain the dilemma of determinism and Ayer’s compatibilist solution to it. I will explain some of the examples Ayer uses to explain the difference between cause and being constrained, and how both affect one’s free will. I will also discuss on why Ayer’s compatibilism solution to the dilemma is the best solution so far. According to A.J. Ayer, the problem of free will is the result from the conflict of two different assumptions, which are men acting freely while being morally responsible for their actions, and that human behavior comes from causal laws. Ayer begins by attacking the determinist for the most part. Determinism…

How to write a Definition Essay

A definition essay is an essay concentrated on the explanation of the meaning of a definite term. The term may be analyzed from the position of one and only meaning and also from the position of subjectivity of the person defining the term. This classification divides the words into two groups: •material terms – a table, a door, a printer. •spiritual terms – friendship, love, honor, pride. How to write a definition essay? A good definition essay is required to have a strong thesis statement in which the point of view of the author on a certain term is revealed. Ordinarily, the term is given the general basic definition implying that the dictionary definitions must be only a start for…

Thomas Aquinas

Introduction As I was a Christian, my parents use to ask me to read different types of books about God and religion. One of my favorite books that I had read during my high school years was a book by Thomas Aquinas. Thomas Aquinas believed in a unique combination of faith and reason in his believes of God, and had brought up five different arguments on his believes in political and ethical in the existence of God. 1st: The First Mover Aristotle got the idea that the whole universe is in motion from Heraclitus, and he wrote it in his Metaphysics. When Aquinas read this, he was amazed by this idea. Aquinas argued that everything must be moved by something….

Potential hazards

In this Unit I will explain potential hazards and the harm that it can cause. A hazard is any source of potential damage, harm or adverse health effects on something or someone under certain conditions at work. Basically, a hazard can cause harm or adverse effects (to individuals as health effects or to organizations as property or equipment losses). Sometimes a hazard is referred to as being the actual harm or the health effect it caused rather than the hazard. Hazards include: * Slippery floors *Tangled Cables – Trip Hazard *Medical Trolleys left unattended *Hot Beverages left unattended *Unsuitable Footwear Slippery Floors Slippery floor are a problem because it can happen anywhere and it is especially a problem in a…

What is Correlational Research?

The correlation research method is appropriate when researchers want to study and “assess relationships among naturally occurring variables.” Assessment means making predictions about the nature of the relationships being studied. It also means describing the relations and assigning them a “correlation coefficient” that describes the direction and magnitude of the movement of variables to one another. There are many types of correlational research. The commonality among all types of correlational research is that they explore relationships between variables. Where descriptive research only described what was going on, correlational research talks about the link between different things. It is important to understand that correlational research does NOT tell us that Variable A caused Variable B, but rather that they are somehow…

Aristotle’s views

Despite being Plato’s student, Aristotle’s views conflict with his teacher’s. The biggest difference being that Aristotle was a realist; he saw the value in studying the physical world and trusted his senses, unlike Plato who believed in the world of forms. Plato believed that we need to look beyond the physical world for a metaphysical explanation of the universe, Aristotle refuted this. Aristotle observed nature and used logic and reason to explain how it works; he tried to find the ‘action’ of why things exist and tried to make sense of them. Also, Aristotle’s approach was imperial and he trusted the use of reason based on his experience. Aristotle rejected Plato’s dualism; he thought that the body and soul are…

Change Quantity Demand

A movement along a given demand curve caused by a change in demand price. The only factor that can cause a change in quantity demanded is price. A related, but distinct, concept is a change in demand. A change in quantity demanded is a change in the specific quantity of a good that buyers are willing and able to buy. This change in quantity demanded is caused by a change in the demand price. It is illustrated by a movement along a given demand curve. In fact, the only way to induce a change in quantity demanded is with a change in the price. Anything else, everything else, causes a change in demand. As the demand price induces a change…

Do People Really Have Free Will

What exactly is free will? Speaker notes: It is the ability for a person to determine some or all of his actions. Some consider free will to be its own cause. Some consider free will to be independent of any other causation, predestination, or predetermination by any other person, event, or stimulus. Of course, this does not make sense since a person is free to do as he/she wants but what he/she wants can only be consistent with his own nature. I propose that free will involves four aspects: Conception, Desire, Choice, and Accomplishment. Conception leads to desire which leads to choice which leads to accomplishing that choice. Slide 3 Who determines who has free will? Speaker notes: According to…

Essay on Free Will and Determinism

Explain what freedom and physical determinism are and why they seem to conflict. How would you resolve this conflict? Give reasons for your answer. Physical determinism is believing in the fact that every event has a cause. (Theodore Sider, pg 113) And that a chain reaction of such would cause an inevitable event to occur. E. g. The invasion of Poland by Hitler in 1939. (Theodore Sider, pg 115) Freedom is the belief that you are able to act on your own free will irrespective of what event has occured, that a decision you make is entirely of your own volition. It is the belief that our life is not predetermined and we are able to influence our future. FROM…

The Power of Fate vs. Free Will

1001 Nights has many stories, with the same theme fate vs. free will. In these stories several characters have to deal with the choices they make and their outcome. What is fate verse free will? Fate could be more destined to happen, as free will could be the ability to do what you want, and pursue your interests. In the story, a€? The Enchanted Horse,a€? it was either fate or free will of man that decided the outcome of the story. In ancient times fate was considered to be part of life. Almost every aspect of life was based upon fate. An example of fate in a€? The Enchanted Horse,a€? would be when the king did not allow the Indiana€™s…

Determinism’s Relation to Free Will

The stereotypical definition of determinism, to the layman, goes something like this: “All events are predetermined so we have no free will.” Actually, this is more or less the definition of hard determinism. Determinism, however, according to professor of philosophy Sandra LaFave, can co-exist with free will in the form of soft determinism, the philosophical theory that all events indeed have causes but that humans can still act voluntarily. Soft determinism provides a more widely-acceptable definition of determinism that agrees more with common usage of the words “free will” and “cause.” Hard determinism states that all events have causes and that we cannot be free as a result. Soft determinism, however, responds to this pessimistic conclusion by asserting that we…

Free Will vs Determinism

“Suicide is the only thing you have control of in life and that’s why it’s a sin; you’re beating ‘God’ at his own game. ”( S. H. ) This is what some people who believe in free will think. However, there is also some determinism in that quote because it talks about how they don’t have control over anything and the only thing they do control is whether they live or die. It is a bit ironic because yes they take their own life but after who will they meet, God, and who will still be in charge, God, not them. Determinism creates a reason for people to blame their actions on someone else. People who believe in free will…

Fishbone Diagram

The cause-and-effect diagram was initially developed by Japanese quality expert Professor Kaoru Ishikawa. In fact, these diagrams are often called Ishikawa diagrams; they are also called fishbone charts for reasons that will become obvious when we look at an example. Cause-and-effect diagrams are usually constructed by a quality team. For example, the team might consist of service designers, production workers, inspectors, supervisors, quality engineers, managers, sales representatives, and maintenance personnel. The team will set up the cause-and-effect diagram during a brainstorming session. After the problem (effect) is clearly stated, the team attempts to identify as many potential causes (sources of process variation) as possible. None of the potential causes suggested by team members should be criticized or rejected. The goal…

Free Will vs Determinism

The debate, free will versus determinism, has been long debated for centuries. Free will is a concept that holds individuals responsible for the action and decisions of their lives. Adversely, other individuals believe one’s life is predetermined. For the purpose of this essay I will prepare dialogue between myself and philosopher Socrates. I will also define free will and determinism. The Dialogue XXXXXX: Determinism is interpreted as the philosophical theory or doctrine in which an individual believes that action from humans are unavoidable; occurrences in nature are more than likely caused by preceding events or natural laws. XXXXXX: Free Will is the ability of humans to express freedom; freedom to make choices freely without the influence of others or nature;…

Free Will vs. Determinism

Before one can properly evaluate the entire debate that enshrouds the Free Will/Determinism, each term must have a meaning, but before we explore the meaning of each term, we must give a general definition. Determinism is, “Everything that happens is caused to happen. (Clifford Williams. “Free Will and Determinism: A Dialogue” pg 3). This is the position that Daniel, a character in Williams’ dialogue, chooses to believe and defend. David Hume goes a little deeper and explains in his essay, “An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding of Liberty and Necessity,” that determinism is this: “It is universally allowed, that matter, in all its operations, is actuated by a necessary force, and that every natural effect is so precisely determined by the…

Sam Harris and Free Will

Convince that free will is an illusion Worse than an illusion- a totally incoherent idea Impossible to describe a universe in which it could be true Two Assumptions: Each of us was free to behave differently than we did in the past Example: I could have chosen chocolate ice-cream but I chose vanilla We are the conscious source of our thoughts and actions The experience of wanting to do something is in fact the proximate cause of action Example: I feel that I want to move and then I move Both assumptions are false We live in a world of cause and effect. No way of thinking of cause and effect that allows the affirmation of free wills assumptions Either…

Free Will vs. Determinism

PHI/105 August 2010 Week 1 – Checkpoint 1 Arguments and Logic Free Will VS Determinism Free Will and Determinism are two separate beliefs, contradicting one another. Determinism is the idea that all matter in this known universe is created for a specific purpose; a specific action. Therefore, the behavior of all atoms are governed by their physical law; their purpose. Free Will is simply defined as humans having free will. Humans have the ability to choose their next action, thereby choosing their path to their future. In the excerpt given these two beliefs are in contradiction with one another and therefore cannot exist. One must believe in a single belief, not both. The arguments given for Determinism is that whatever…

Chisholm and Free Will

Before I begin it is pertinent to note the disparate positions on the problem of human freedom. In “Human Freedom and the Self”, Roderick M. Chisholm takes the libertarian stance which is contiguous with the doctrine of incompatibility. Libertarians believe in free will and recognize that freedom and determinism are incompatible. The determinist also follow the doctrine of incompatibility, and according to Chisholm’s formulation, their view is that every event involved in an act is caused by some other event. Since they adhere to this type of causality, they believe that all actions are consequential and that freedom of the will is illusory. Compatiblist deny the conflict between free will and determinism. A. J. Ayer makes a compatibilist argument in…

Free Will and Determinisim

Both Steven Cahn and W. T. Stace have written essays concerning the compatibility of Free Will and/or Determinism. However, they have opposing views on the subject, whereas Cahn believes free will and determinism are incompatible and Stace believes that they are. Free will can be defined as one’s ability or power to freely make choices that are unconstrained by external circumstances or by an agency such as fate. On the other hand, Determinism can be defined as the, “philosophical proposition that every event, including human cognition and action, is causally determined by an unbroken chain of prior occurrences” (Wikipedia). So what are the arguments concerning their compatibility? In Cahn’s article, determinism is defined as the way things will be is…

Free will – Determinism

Free will is the power to choose among real alternative possibilities. To have free will is to have what it takes to act freely. When an agent acts freely (when she exercises her free will) what she does is up to her. A plurality of alternatives is open to her, and she determines which she pursues. When she does, she is an ultimate source or origin of her action. So runs a familiar conception of free will. Incompatibility holds that we act freely in this sense only if determinism is false. Some say little more about what, besides indeterminism, free will requires. And, yes, the task of providing an incompatibility account is not an easy one. If the truth of…

Link Between Job Satisfaction and Job Performance

Introduction Job satisfaction and job performance Job satisfaction and job performance have always been very integral, albeit contentious issues pertaining to overall organisational success. According to Vandeveer & Menefee (2006) job satisfaction is a person’s attitude that includes factors such as promotions, pay, opportunity, and the work environment. According to Campbell et al (1993) Performance is what the organisation hires one to do and do well. Dehkordi et al (2011) posit that job satisfaction is an important factor in occupational success, which increases the performance/productivity of an employee in an organisation. Historically speaking job satisfaction and job performance have been deemed to have some sort of a relationship which has resulted in efforts by owners or management of an organisation…

The Four Causes of Aristotle

Aristotle, being the first historian of philosophy, categorized his predecessors according to how they’ve answered the central questions of the human mind – the question of the first principle of all things. It is otherwise known as the Four Causes. He defined science as knowledge through causes. This doctrine of causes is scattered in different Aristotelian treatises but have its highlight in his book Metaphysics. This principle of causality is an essential part of Aristotelian thought. In his mind, Aristotle argued that events happen for a cause which will explain its origin, end and the way it came to be. For him, “everything that comes to be is due to causes.” He criticized his predecessors for their not having clearly…

Investingating the Relationship Among Corruption

ABSTRACT A plethora of empirical studies attempted investigating the causal relationship between corruption and poverty. But the outcome of those studies produced mixed results in a regression model that captured only two variables. In this investigated bivariate model, economic growth as an important variable was not included. In fact, omitting such an important variable could seriously affect the research output. Therefore, the objective of this study is to fill the research gap by investigating the trivariate causality for Nigerian economy by incorporating economic growth as a third variable in the existing corruption and poverty bivariate model. The results of this study indicated that there is an existence of co-integration among the variables under investigation – characterizing a long run causality…