This research is a case study of an organization named “Bal Kalyan Sanstha, Pune”. Bal Kalyan Sanstha is a non-profit organization which mainly aims at providing recreational and cultural facilities to the differently-abled children in the state of Maharashtra. The purpose behind this case study is that the researcher wants to explore the recreational, cultural and welfare activities of this institution to all people. This chapter reveals the need and importance of recreational and cultural activities in the lives of disabled students (DS). It also discusses about rights of disabled children and various programmes undertaken by government for the welfare of the disabled.
1.2 DISABILITY AND RECREATION
Disability is any physical or mental condition that limits a person’s movements, senses or activities. The term disability is conventionally used to refer to attributes that are severe enough to interfere with, or prevent, normal day-to-day activities. There are 600 million disabled people in the world and in the past very few recreational activities were available to them.
Recreation is an essential part of human life and finds many different forms which are shaped naturally by individual interests but also by the surrounding social construction. Sport for persons with disabilities is not a new concept, but its full potential as a powerful, low-cost means to foster greater inclusion and well-being for persons with disabilities (PWD) is only beginning to be realized. Activities such as swimming, dance, music and sports aid in not only the mental and physical health of a disabled child, they also help in the development of self-confidence and boost morale. Disabled children, just like the rest of us, need the thrill and enjoyment that recreational activities can provide. They are equally entitled to an exciting and brilliant future.
1.3 IMPORTANCE OF RECREATION
Recreation is about engaging in delightful activities that bring in glee. It is very important to understand the necessity of recreation and giving some time for it. Recreation is like a rain shower during the days of scorching heat. It is like a ray of moonlight in the dreadful darkness. Recreation is moreover the time to get together to have fun. Devoting some time for recreation on a daily basis helps in the long run in maintaining health and achieving a peace of mind. Participate in some regular physical activity, play a sport or exercise and feel a difference. These recreational activities serve as a means of relaxation.
Research has shown that recreation on a daily basis reduces risks of diseases like diabetes and hypertension, enhances physical and mental health and improves the quality of life.
Recreation is of two types. Active recreation is about engaging in adventure sports or outdoor games while passive recreation involves activities such as taking a walk on the riverside, walking on the beach, strolling in parks or taking nature walks. Both kinds of recreation have their own set of advantages. They create a positive mood, lighten your spirit and help you gain your mental peace.
Recreational activities are widely popular across the globe. Some enjoy touring to beautiful places around the world while others take interest in pursuing their hobbies as a means of recreation. Be it of any sort, recreation needs to be made a vital component of the fast life of the present times.
1.4 RIGHT TO RECREATION AND LEISURE FOR PERSONS WITH DISABILITY
Recreation and leisure are spheres of activity from which people with disabilities have often been excluded for reasons of dysfunction and perceived inability. Disability rights advocates that people with disabilities have the same rights as non-disabled people, which include the right to positive recreation experiences. To begin to translate this thinking into policy requires, at least, the adoption of inclusive recreation environments by recreation agencies. More than just an inclusive environment is necessary, however, for people with disabilities to have positive recreation experiences. Inclusion does not necessarily result in acceptance or positive experiences (Devine, 2004; Patterson, 2001) and inclusive recreation programmes or services do not always benefit people with disabilities. It is, therefore, important to identify the inclusive recreation programmes that exist and determine if such programmes are meeting the recreational needs of people with disabilities.
1.5 MODELS OF DISABILITY
Virtually all the literature on disability outlines the shift in disability policy thinking from the charity and medical models of disability towards social model of disability. The various models can be described briefly as follows:
1.5.1 MEDICAL MODEL OF DISABILITY
The medical model of disability relies on a purely medical definition of disability. It thus equates the physical or mental impairment from a disease or disorder with the disability that the person experiences. From a policy viewpoint, the person with disability is viewed as the “problem”, and in need of cure and treatment. In terms of services, the general approach within this model is towards special institutions for people with disabilities, e.g. special schools, sheltered workshops, special transport etc. The limitations of the pure medical model are evident, though it till underlies some current analysis such as that based on disability-adjusted life years.
1.5.2 CHARITY MODEL OF DISABILITY
The charity model of disability also view the person with disabilities as the problem and dependent on the sympathy of others to provide assistance in a charity or welfare mode.
1.5.3 SOCIAL MODEL OF DISABILITY
The social model of disability “places the emphasis on promoting social change that empowers and incorporates the experiences of PWD, asking society itself to adapt”. The social model emphasizes institutional, environmental and attitudinal discriminations as the real basis for disability. Thus it is the society at large which disables the person with disabilities through discrimination, denial of rights, and creation of economic dependency.
1.5.4 RIGHTS-BASED MODEL OF DISABILITY
The rights-based model of disability builds on the insights of the social model to promote creation of communities which accept diversities and differences, and have a non-discriminating environment in terms of inclusion in all aspects of the life of society.
The International Classification of Impairments, Disability and Handicaps (ICIDH) from WHO in 1980 was a breakthrough in this evolution. It recognized that personal, social and environmental factors are all at play in “creating” disability. This acknowledged that not only physical or mental impairments but the attitudes and institutions of society had significant impacts on the opportunities of PWD.
1.6 GOVERNMENT PROGRAMMES FOR DIFFERENTLY-ABLED STUDENTS
The official recognition that learning disabilities are a barrier to a child’s education opened doors for millions of children. Congressional passage of the Education of the Handicapped Act in 1970 required schools to provide support services for children labeled with a disability. Since then, research and understanding of conditions like autism, dyslexia, processing deficits and other impediments has grown. Steps taken by the federal government, and some states, have helped level the playing field for all kids.
1.6.1 INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES EDUCATION ACT
Congress passed the Education for All Handicapped Children Act in 1975. This law mandated free and appropriate public education for all students. Fifteen years later, the law was renamed the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, and expanded to include children with autism and traumatic brain injuries. The latest revision in 2004 put into place new programs related to identification of students with learning disabilities.
1.6.2 REHABILITATION ACT: SECTION 504
The Rehabilitation Act of 1973 makes discrimination on the basis of disability a federal crime. Section 504 of the act offers disability protection to anyone who has a mental impairment that “substantially limits” at least one major life activity. Section 504 protects children against discrimination by requiring schools to notify a parent before testing or evaluating the child, and taking into account cultural, social, economic and academic conditions when making a diagnosis.
The testing is typically conducted by school faculty, and testing methods and evaluation vary from school district to school district. The National Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities reports that parents can also request that an evaluation be performed by independent evaluators, and this may be performed at the school’s expense. The IDEA provides this option if the parent disputes the results of the school evaluation. At an appeal hearing, the parent can request an Independent Educational Evaluation to be conducted at the public’s expense.
1.6.4 ADAPTED LEARNING MATERIALS
Each state’s department of education operates differently, but all have an office or agency that provides services for the disabled. These agencies provide support to parents and children, and connect families to available resources, such as adaptable learning material, books, tools and equipment for training or employment. For students with dyslexia, this may include books on tape. Those with processing deficits may qualify to receive recording devices, computer hardware or software and other equipment to help synthesize notes and complete assessments. Most services provided by state programs are free or available at reduced fees based on family income.
1.7 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
A Case Study of Bal Kalyan Sanstha, Pune.
1.8 OPERATIONAL DEFINITIONS
* Bal Kalyan Sanstha – A non-profit organization providing recreational and cultural facilities to disabled children in Pune city. * Non-profit organization – The organization which render services to the people for the welfare of the society without aiming profit. * Recreational activity – Pleasant activity which one enjoys doing in one’s spare time (e.g. a sport, hobby). * Cultural activity – Activity related to arts (e.g. dance, music) * Disabled children – Children suffering with physical disability/impairment. * Case study – The study of Bal Kalyan Sanstha in the light of its role and functions, recreational, cultural and welfare activities
1.9 NEED OF THE STUDY
There is a need to create awareness of such organizations like Bal Kalyan Sanstha to parents, schools of handicap and other institutions. BKS is the only organization which provides recreational and cultural activities for the disabled children in Maharashtra. The purpose of this study is that many organizations should work for the betterment of PWD. More and more NGO’s should come up with recreational and cultural activities in Maharashtra. Even government should implement various policies and strategies so that PWD are not missed out of the chunk. Therefore the study of this organization is necessary and is needed to help the disabled enjoy their life to the fullest.
1.10 IMPORTANCE OF THE STUDY
This study is useful to know;
* the facilities provided by this organization.
* the role and functions of this organization.
* the recreational and cultural activities provided by this organization. * the contribution of this organization towards the disabled children. * about various personality development programs in the field of arts, sports etc. organized by this organization * welfare activities provided by this organization.
1.11 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
* To know the role and functions of Bal Kalyan Sanstha.
* To know about the recreational and cultural activities provided by Bal Kalyan Sanstha.
* To know about welfare activities provided by Bal Kalyan Sanstha.
1.12 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
* What are the role and functions of Bal Kalyan Sanstha?
* Which recreational and cultural activities are provided by Bal Kalyan Sanstha?
* Which welfare activities are provided by Bal Kalyan Sanstha? 1.13 ASSUMPTIONS OF THE STUDY
* The information retrieved from the website of Bal Kalyan Sanstha is true.
* The information provided by Bal Kalyan Sanstha is true.
1.14 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
* This research will prove helpful for upcoming institutions dealing with recreation and cultural activities for disabled children. * This research can be used by ministry of education for their policy making for the welfare of disabled children. * It will serve as guidelines for researchers to do further research.
1.15 DELIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
* The researcher had not considered financial resources of Bal Kalyan Sanstha.eg: payment of faculty members, miscellaneous expenses, purchase of assets etc. * The researcher had delimited herself to the study of Bal Kalyan Sanstha for the academic year 2010-2011 only.
1.16 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
* Bal Kalyan Sanstha is the only organization which provides recreational and cultural activities in the state of Maharashtra. * This organization provides recreational and cultural activities to disabled children only.
CHAPTER 1: This chapter deals with ‘Introduction’ of recreation and disability initially. Further importance of recreation, right to recreation for PWD and models of disability are discussed. Also operational definitions, importance, scope, delimitations and limitations of the study are mentioned.
CHAPTER 2: This chapter discusses about ‘Bal Kalyan Sanstha’ with reference to its history, aims and philosophy and services provided.
CHAPTER 3: This chapter deals with ‘Review of Related Literature’. Here the thesis and dissertations referred for the purpose of the study are noted. Along with this, online articles, e-books and other related books referred are also mentioned.
CHAPTER 4: This chapter deals with ‘Research Methodology’. This research is a case study, part of descriptive research. The researcher had taken help of informants to get information for fulfilling the objectives of the study.
CHAPTER 5: This chapter deals with ‘Analysis and Interpretation of Data’. The researcher had used interview and questionnaire tools for data collection and it is organized in tabulated and graphical form and interpreted in description.
CHAPTER 6: This chapter is about ‘Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations’ drawn in this study. Even some suggestions are put forth for the further research.
1.18 CHAPTER SUMMARY
This chapter reveals the need and importance of recreational and cultural activities in the lives of disabled students (DS). It also discusses about rights of disabled children and various programmes undertaken by government for the welfare of the disabled. Further statement of problem, objectives, need and importance, scope, limitations and delimitations of the study are given. The next chapter will give detailed information about the case Bal Kalyan Sanstha.