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Case Study of Wage and Salary Administration Essay

Psychopathology

I.Important Concepts

II.Categories
III.Incidence
IV.Models to Explain

Important Concepts

Psychopathology Defined

Medical Student’s Syndrome

Abnormality

Normality

Classification

Psychopathology Defined

Means sickness of the mind.

There are many synonyms:

Emotional DisorderCraziness

LunacyMental Illness

Mental DeviationNervous Disease

Mental AbnormalityPsychiatric Illness

PsychopathologyEtc.

Medical Student’s Syndrome

Medical student’s studying the heart became sensitive to the sounds of their own hearts.

We are studying the mind.

Lets not get carried away analyzing ourselves.

If you feel you have a serious problem, there is a counseling center on campus.

Abnormality

There is no agreed upon definition, but most consider:

Deviation from statistical norms.

Deviation from social norms.

Maladaptiveness of behavior.

Adversely effects individual or society.

Problem: Who is the judge?

Personal distress.

Problem: In many cases of abnormality there is no distress.

Social Norms

Behavior“Normal”“Abnormal”

Ropejumpinggymclass

Cryingfuneralgrocery store

Laughingjokefuneral

Nervousnessbefore surgerybefore brushing teeth

Problem – Social norms differ from society to society & can change over time.

Normality

Is even more difficult to define, but most would agree on:

Efficient perception of reality

Self-knowledge

Voluntary control of behavior

Self-esteem & acceptance

Ability to form affectionate relationships

Productivity

Classification

Considering the difficulty in distinguishing normal from abnormal, categorizing & diagnosing the different types of abnormalities can be difficult.

The APA currently uses the DSM-IV (Diagnostic & Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 4-th Ed).

Mental Disorder Catagories 1

A Sampling:

Disorders Evident in Infancy or Childhood – Exs. mental retardation, ADHD, eating disorders.

1. Delirium, Dementia, Amnestic, & Other Cognitive Disorders

Functioning of brain is impaired.

Exs. brain damage, Alzheimer’s disease.

Psychoactive Substance Use Disorders

Dissociative Disorders

Involve a identity problem.

Exs. amnesia, MPD.

Mental Disorder Catagories 2

Anxiety Disorders

Schizophrenia

Mood Disorders

Personality Disorders

Anxiety Disorders

Characterized by excessive rumination, worrying, uneasiness, apprehension &
fear about future uncertainties either based on real or imagined events, which may affect both physical & psychological health.

Types

GAD

Panic disorder

OCD

Phobias

PTSD

Generalized Anxiety Disorder

Characterized by long-lasting anxiety that is not focused on any one object or situation. Those suffering from generalized anxiety disorder experience non-specific persistent fear and worry, & become overly concerned with everyday matters.

Diagnosis of GAD is made when a person has been excessively worried about an everyday problem for >6 months.

Anxiety here is free floating.

Most common anxiety disorder to affect older adults.

Panic Disorder

Person suffers from panic attacks (brief attacks of intense terror & apprehension, often marked by trembling, shaking, confusion, dizziness, nausea, and/or difficulty breathing).

In addition to panic attacks, a diagnosis of panic disorder requires that the attacks have chronic consequences: either worry over the attacks’ potential implications, persistent fear of future attacks, or significant changes in behavior related to the attacks.

33-50% develop agoraphobia.

Post Traumatic Stress Disorder – PTSD

Results from a traumatic experience. Post-traumatic stress can result from an extreme situation, such as combat, natural disaster, rape, hostage situations, child abuse, bullying or even a serious accident. It can also result from chronic exposure to a severe stressor.

Symptoms

Became widely excepted as a diagnostic category because of difficulties experienced by Vietnam war veterans.

Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

Obsession – an idea you cannot get out of your head.

Compulsion – a behavior you cannot stop performing.

Washing, cleaning, & checking are the most common.

Phobias

Frequently accompany other disorders.

Anxiety here is specific.

Are 3 broad categories:

Agoraphobia

Fear anyplace where might be trapped or unable to receive help in an emergency.

Often accompanies panic disorder.

Are usually very dependent people.

Is the most common & the hardest to treat.

Social Phobias

Are insecure in social situations

Have a fear of embarrassing themselves.

Simple Phobias

Is a fear of an animal, object or situation.

Over 300 have been named. Exs.

Schizophrenia

Examples

Facts

Major Symptoms

Major Types

Genetics

Schizophrenia Facts

Have difficulty sorting out the real from unreal, in keeping track of their thoughts, & responding to the everyday events in life.

Involves personality disintegration & a loss of contact with reality.

This group occupies about half the beds in mental hospitals.

Occurs equally in men & women, but tends to occur at an earlier age in men than women.

Typical age of onset is 15 – 35.

Schizophrenia: Major Symptoms

Disordered Thinking

Disturbances of Perception

Disturbances of Emotion

Communication Difficulties

Bizarre Motor Behavior

Disordered Thinking

Autistic Thinking – Absorption in fantasy.

Prelogical Thinking – Thought processes are primitive & incomplete.

Delusions – False beliefs. Several types: Persecution, Grandeur, Reference, Control, & Identity.

Disturbances of Perception

Attention & Filtering – Seem to have trouble focusing attention & filtering out irrelevant stimuli.

Louis Wain (1860-1939) – A famous animal artist. His drawings of a cat show his progressive deterioration & some disturbing distortions of perception.

Hallucinations – False perceptions. Are usually auditory (hear voices), but may also be visual or olfactory.

Disturbances of Emotion

Flattened emotions (blunted affect).

Inappropriate emotions.

Communication Difficulties

Echolalia – Repeating the last word or phrase spoken by another.

Neologisms – Made up words.

Word Salad – Words haphazardly thrown together.

Verbal Exhibitionism – A grandiose manner of speech.

Bizarre Motor Behavior

Unusual Motions – May grimace or gesture in peculiar ways.

Catalepsy – Holding a particular posture for a long time.

Waxy Flexibility – Posture can be molded.

Cataplexy – Loss of muscle tone.

Schizophrenia: Major Types

Paranoid (≈ 30-50%) – Symptoms: delusions of persecution often with hallucinations.

Disorganized (Silly) – Symptoms: grossly disordered thinking, emotions, & communication.

Catatonic (rare) – Symptoms: withdrawal & catalepsy.

Undifferentiated (or Simple) – Symptoms: nothing major, are seclusive, withdrawn, “peculiar” people.

Residual – Symptoms: have abated, but hallucinations & flat affect may remain.

Genetics

The more closely related a person is to a patient with schizophrenia, the more likely that person is to develop schizophrenia (Gottesman, 1991).

Adopted children with schizophrenia are the most likely to have symptomatic biological relatives.

Mood Disorders

Depression

Symptoms

Facts

Bipolar Disorders

Mania – Is very rare by itself.

Depression Symptoms

Emotional – A mood of sadness & anhedonia.

Cognitive – A negative self image, poor concentration, hopelessness.

Motivational – Tends to be passive & has difficulty initiating activities.

Physical – Fatigue, anorexia, sleep disturbances. Aches & pains.

Depression Facts

Can be a normal response.

If it’s experienced constantly for 2 weeks it’s usually considered abnormal.

More prevalent in females.

Most are of short duration (≈ ¼ last < a month & ½ last < 3).

Tends to recur (≈ ½ of the folks that experience it will experience it again).

Bipolar Disorders

Also called Manic-Depression

Moods tend to fluctuate on a cycle with the extremes being mania & depression.

Accounts for ≈ 5-10% of mood disorders.

Less than 1% of the population has it (& equally common in men & women).

Compared to a depressive disorder, it tends to occur at an earlier age & has a stronger genetic component.

Personality Disorders

Common Characteristics

Antisocial Personality

Personality Disorders: Common Characteristics

Are immature & inappropriate ways of dealing with stress & solving problems.

Defined by longstanding patterns of maladaptive behavior.

Typically begin in adolescence & may continue throughout the lifespan.

Society (rather than the individual) views the behaviors involved as maladaptive.

Develop slowly (i.e., chronic onset).

Are difficult to treat.

Antisocial Personality

Also called Sociopath or Psychopath.

Is the most studied & reliably diagnosed.

Occurs 3x more often in men.

Have little sense of responsibility, morality, or concern for others.

Are good con-artists.

They show less empathy.

Studies suggest they may have an under-reactive NS (e.g., Lippert & Senta, 1966).

Incidence of Mental Illness

SAMHSA (08) – disorders by gender, age, & race.

Tressler (94) – disorder categories by gender.

Disorders by Category – 2005

Models to Explain Mental Illness

Medical – Stress biochemical & hereditary factors.

Psychodynamic – Stress conflict, defense mechanisms.

Social Learning – Stress environmental contingencies, vicarious learning.

Humanistic – Stress lack of unconditional positive regard.

Sociocultural – Stress the role of the family, SES, ethnic background.

Diathesis-Stress (or Vulnerability-Stress) – Stress the idea of a genetic predisposition combined with certain environmental stressors.


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