Carl Gustav Jung was born on 26th July, 1875 in Kesswyl, a town on Lake Constance in Switzerland. For sixty years, Carl Jung devoted himself with intense energy and with a singularity of purpose to analyzing the far-flung and deep-lying processes of human personality. Although Carl Jung’s theory of personality is usually identified as a psychoanalytic theory because of the emphasis that it places upon unconscious processes, it differs in some notable aspects from Freud’s theory of personality. What is so unique about Carl Jung’s view of humans is that it combines teleology with causality.
The ego: Jung identified the ego with conscious mind. From an individual’s point of view ego is regarded as being the centre of consciousness. Consciousness is where those images are sensed by the ego. Its responsible for one’s feeling identity and continuity. The unconscious element has no relation with the ego. Jung’s idea of the ego is more restrictive than Freud. The ego is not the whole personality but must be completed by the more comprehensive self, the centre of the personality is largely unconscious, Jung said.
The ego takes a secondary position to the unconscious self, in a healthy person. The personal unconscious: unconscious consists of the past experiences that were once conscious but have been repressed. Unconscious is adjoining the ego. The personal unconscious embraces all repressed, forgotten, or subliminally perceived experiences from one particular individual. The personal unconscious is similar to Freud’s view of the unconscious and the preconscious combined. There is also a great deal of two-way traffic between the personal conscious and ego.
The collective unconscious: the collective unconscious is one of the most original and controversial theory of personality, by Jung. The content of the collective unconscious are the same more or less for people of every culture. It is also called as a store house of ancestral memory. This memory is entirely detached from an individual and it is seemingly universal in nature. It is human’s innate tendency to react in a particular way whenever their experiences stimulate a biologically inherited response tendency.
Example, it is like a mother’s unlikely response of love toward her newborn Archetypes: Archetypes are ancient or archaic images that derive from the collective unconscious. They are similar in that they are emotionally toned collections of associated images. While complexes are individualized components of the personal unconscious, archetypes are generalized and derive from the contents of the collective unconscious. Archetypes originate because of the constant repetitions of an experience for generations together. They are expressed indirectly and, when activated, it expresses itself through dreams, fantasies, and delusions.
1. Dreams are the main source of archetypal materials and offer what Jung considered proof for the existence of archetypes. 2. Dreams produce motifs that could not have been known to the dreamer through personal experience. The persona: Persona which is the side of personality that people show to the world. It is like putting up a mask on your face for the outside world. Not necessarily the same as the public face that one shows others. Jung believed that, to be psychologically healthy, one must strike a balance between the demands of society and what we really are.
The anima and animus: Anima is the feminine side of a man. . Jung believed that the anima originated from early men’s experiences with women including mothers, sisters, and lovers which combine into the concept of women. Animus is the masculine side of a woman. Animus originates from early women’s experiences with men including fathers, brothers, and lovers that are combined into the concept of men. The Self: Jung earlier considered the self equivalent to psyche. However later on, after discovering the archetypes, he found one that represented human striving for unity.
He believed that the self is the centre point of personality, around which all of the other systems revolve. It holds these systems together and provides the personality with unity, equilibrium, and stability. Self is life’s goal, a goal that people constantly strive for but rarely achieve. It motivates human behaviour and causes one to search for wholeness. However, prior to the emergence of a self, it is vital for the personality to fully develop and individuate. Carl Jung believed that humans use four fundamental strategies to process information: 1.
Thinking- it is ideational and intellectual. By thinking humans try to comprehend human nature of the world and themselves. 2. Feeling- it is the evaluation function; it is the value of things, whether positive or negative, with reference to the subject. The feeling function gives humans their subjective experiences of pleasure and pain, of anger, fear, sorrow, joy and love. 3. Sensing- it is the perpetual or reality function. It yields concrete facts or representations of the world. 4. Intuition- it is the perception by way of unconscious processes and subliminal contents.
The intuitive person goes beyond facts, feelings, and ideas in his or her search for the essence of reality. Thinking and feeling are called rational functions because they make use of reason, judgement, abstraction, and generalisation. They enable humans to look for lawfulness in the universe. Sensation and intuition are considered to be irrational functions because they are based on the perception of the concrete, particular, and accidental. Although a person has all four functions they aren’t necessarily equally developed.