A)How could an infection in Cari’s nasal passages and pharynx spread into her sinuses? The infection in Cari’s nasal passages and pharynx was able to spread into her sinuses due to the sinuses being a drainage area for the nasal passages.
B)What is the cough reflex? Describe the process that Cari’s respiratory system is using to clear her lungs by coughing. The cough reflex is used to clear sputum and irritants that are in the nasal passages and pharynx. There are cilia in her trachea that is moving mucus up from the lungs. When the mucus becomes abundant it triggers the cough reflex.
C)Which structures found in the terminal bronchioles and alveoli normally would protect Cari’s lungs from infectious pathogens and particulate matter? There are macrophages found in the terminal bronchioles and alveoli that normally would protect Cari’s lungs from infectious pathogens and particulate matter.
D)How would the resistance of Cari’s airways be affected by excess mucus and fluid in her lungs? The excess mucus and fluid in the lungs would raise the resistance of Cari’s airways because of the small diameter the buildup would cause. The fluid would have some of alveoli under water where they could not function properly and there would also be more friction from the buildup.
E)How would Cari’s lung compliance be altered as her alveoli fill with fluid due to pneumonia? Cari’s lung compliance would increase from trying to force gases into and out of the alveoli. Those are filled with fluid due to the pneumonia.
F)How would fluid in Cari’s lungs affect her total lung capacity? The fluid in Cari’s lungs would lower her total lung capacity by not allowing the space that is taken up by the fluid to be filled with air.
G)How does the elevation of Cari’s respiratory rate alter her minute ventilation? The elevation in her respiratory rate would alter her minute ventilation by raising it. Minute ventilation is determined by times ing respiratory rate by total volume.
H)Normal blood oxygen saturation levels are greater than 94 percent; Cari’s blood oxygen saturation level was 90 percent at the time of her exam and an initial arterial blood gas analysis done when she was admitted to the hospital revealed her arterial Po2 was 54 mmHg. How do these clinical findings relate to the internal respiration in Cari’s body? The clinical finding of 90% oxygen saturation level and a Po2 of mmHg would show that the arteries are having too much oxygen, since a normal Po2 of a resting person is 40 mmHg and exercises lower Po2 levels. A normal resting oxygen level should be about 94% with no added Oxygen.
I)Which of the symptoms has described are due to lack of oxygen and reduced oxygen exchange at her tissues? Cari’s symptom of “panting like a dog” is due to the lack of oxygen and reduces oxygen exchange at her tissues.
J)As Cari’s Pco2 rose, how was the oxygen-carrying capacity of hemoglobin affected? The oxygen carrying capacity of hemoglobin with rising Pco2 will decrease since CO2 will take O2’s seat on the short bus.
K)How would you of expected Cari’s decreased Pco2 and alkaline blood pH to have affected her breathing? As acidity increases (pH decreases), it enhances the unloading of oxygen from hemoglobin.
L)How would administration of oxygen enhance Cari’s central drive to breath? Giving Cari proper steady flow oxygen will keep her body from having to work harder to breathe.
M)Which anatomical structures in Cari’s respiratory system were initially involved?
N)Why was Cari plagued with a chronic smoker’s cough?
Because Cari is a smoker this has caused the cilia in her respiratory passages to become irritated.
O)Which damaging effects of tobacco smoke led to Cari’s impaired respiratory defense mechanisms? Impaired alveolar macrophages can lead to the impaired defense. The physiological sites and mechanisms by which nicotine acts on the brain.
P)How did the pneumonia affect Cari’s lung function?
Pneumonia can reduce the ability of the lungs to allow oxygen diffusion across the alveoli.
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