How could an infection in Cari’s nasal passages and pharynx spread into her sinuses? An infection will spread because the pharynx, larynx and sinuses are all connected, so the infection is going to spread to the sinuses and the surrounding areas. What is the cough reflex? Describe the process that Cari’s respiratory system is using to clear her lungs by coughing? The cough reflex is a deep and long inhalation that is followed by the closing the glottis, this causes a strong exhalation that will push the glottis open and sends the air through the respiratory passage. The coughing occurs when a foreign body is in the larynx, trachea or the epiglottis. Cari is coughing because the mucous and fluid buildup in her lungs and her body is to get rid of it. Which structures found in the terminal bronchioles and alveoli normally would protect Cari’s lungs from infectious pathogens and particulate matter? The alveolar macrophage protects her lungs because they wonder around the alveoli space and it collects dust, particles and debris. Cari does smoke and it has caused the cilia in her respiratory passage way to become paralyzed and then it secretes the excess amounts of mucus. The macrophages are sent to the lungs and it gets stuck in the mucus and it can’t fight off the pathogens.
How would the resistance of Cari’s airways be affected by excess mucus and fluid in her lung? Cari isn’t getting adequate oxygen because the pressure of fluid and the mucus buildup in her lungs. This is not allowing her lungs to expand so she can get the breath her body needs. The fluid buildup and the pressure are not allowing her oxygen to disperse to the areas it needs. How would Cari’s lung compliance (the effort required to expand the lungs) be altered as her alveoli fill with fluid due to pneumonia? The fluid in her lungs makes it hard to expand because the fluid makes the alveoli sticky and it can’t expand and open. How would fluid in Cari’s lungs affect her total lung capacity? Cari’s lung capacity would go down due to the fact that the air space is being taken up by the fluid in her lungs. How does the elevation of Cari’s respiratory rate alter her minute ventilation? Cari’s respiratory rate will increase her minute ventilation. Normal blood oxygen saturation levels are greater than 94 percent; Cari’s blood oxygen saturation levels are greater 90 percent at the time of her exam and an initial arterial blood gas analysis done when she was admitted to the hospital revealed her arterial Po2 was 54mmHg.
How do these clinical findings relate to the internal respiration in Cari’s body? Cari’s oxygen saturation level was 90% and the Po2 of mmHg would show that her arteries are having too much oxygen. A normal resting mmHg is 40% and exercises lower Po2level. A normal resting oxygen level is 94%. Which of the symptoms Cari has described are due to the lack of oxygen and reduced oxygen exchange at her tissues? Cari said she is “panting like a dog” is due from the lack of oxygen and t reduces her oxygen exchange. As Cari’s Pco2 rose, how was the oxygen-carrying capacity of hemoglobin affected? The oxygen carrying of hemoglobin volume with the rise of Pco2 will decrease since the Co2 will take O2’s seat. How would you have expected Cari’s decreased Pco2 and alkaline blood pH to have affected her breathing? Cari’s pH and Pco2 will decrease and her rate of breathing will also be decreasing.
How would administration of oxygen enhance Cari’s central drive to breathe? Cari would be able to breathe better when oxygen was administered to her. Which anatomical structures in Cari’s respiratory system were initially involved? The structures involved are the trachea, nasal, pharynx, and larynx, and the lungs. Why was Cari plagued with a chronic smoker’s cough? Cari is plagued with a chronic smoker’s cough because she has a 20 year history of smoking. Which damaging effects of tobacco smoke led to Cari’s impaired respiratory defense mechanisms? There are damages to the epithelial with those damages comes the body’s repair process. How did the pneumonia affect Cari’s lung function? Cari’s was having problems getting adequate oxygen, because of the fluid in her lungs. The pneumonia is an infection from bacteria that can affect the body, because of her smoking it made it hard for her lungs to get air.