In this task the explanation of why individuals may experience additional needs will be provided. There are 4 main categories of disability. I will list them and also give an example of each category and also say if the disability is physical, cognitive or sensory. Physical meaning having problems with strength or co-ordination within caused by having an accident or an inspection. Cognitive meaning a person having problems with learning and understanding everyday things.
Sensory – this can be a problem with learning through sight, taste, smell, touch and hearing. Basically this has to do with the five senses. The categories are: Genetic (from a family member through blood) – Sickle cell is contracted through either parent (mother/father) who has the trait. This trait can be passed on to the child or children. If the father has a trait and the mother has a trait, the child can get the full trait. This category is physical.
Accidental – accidents can cause disability e. g. a person driving a car and accidentally hits down a person walking in the road; this can cause major damage to this person. The person could be paralyzed for life. This category is physical and could also be cognitive because this person could have hit his/her head and ended up being brain damage. The brain damage can lead to this person losing most of the knowledge he/she had before and have to start learning all over again.
Developmental – can be caused be a pregnant woman having difficulty in the womb or during birth. A child can develop disability while growing up for example contracting Meningitis. Possible complications that can be caused are hearing loss, learning disability or problem with co-ordination and balance. This category can be sensory, physical or cognitive. Environmental – can be caused by working in a place where there is lots of dust or even smoking can cause a person to develop asthma or other infections. This category can be physical.