How can an infection in Cari nasal passages and pharyns spread into her sinuses? The infection in Cari’s nasal passages and pharynx was able to spread into her sinuses due to the sinuses being a drainage area for the nasal passages. What is the cough reflex? Describe the process that Cari’s respiratory system is using to clear her lungs by coughing. The cough reflex is used to clear sputum and irritants that are in the nasal passages and pharynx. There are cilia in her trachea that is moving mucus up from the lungs. When the mucus becomes or abundant it triggers the cough reflex. Which structures found in the terminal bronchioles and alveoli normally would protect Cari’s lungs from infectious pathogens and particulate matter? Macrophages found in the terminal bronchioles and alveoli that normally would protect Cari’s lungs from infectious pathogens and particulate matter. How would the resistance of Cari’s airways be affected by excess mucus and fluid in her lung? Excess mucus and fluid in the lungs would raise the resistance of Cari’s airways because of the small diameter the buildup would cause.
The fluid would have some of alveoli under water where they could not function properly and there would also be more friction from the buildup. How would Cari’s lung compliance (the effort required to expand the lungs) be altered as her alveoli fill with fluid due to pneumonia? Lung compliance would increase from trying to force gases into and out of the alveoli. Those are filled with fluid due to the pneumonia. How would fluid in Cari’s lung affect her total lung capacity? Fluid in Cari’s lungs would lower her total lung capacity by not allowing the space that is taken up by the fluid to be filled with air. How does the elevation of Cari’s respiratory rate alter her minute ventilation? Elevation in her respiratory rate would alter her minute ventilation by raising it. Minute ventilation is determined by times ing respiratory rate by total volume. Normal blood oxygen saturation levels are greater than 94 percent; Caris blood oxygen saturation level was 90 percent at the time of her exam and an initial arterial blood gas analysis done when she was admitted to the hospital revealed her arterial Po2 was 54mmhg. How do these clinical finding relate to the internal respiration in cari body?