a. Define Baby Boomers-(those born from 1946–1964) reach retirement age (as of 2011). They will make up the world’s largest part of society. In addition, the boomers will be the largest cohort of retirees ever. Also, the boomers may become the most-engaged cohort of older adults. The boomers will be the healthiest cohort of older adults. The boomers will be the best-educated cohort of older adults. First, the boomers will be the longest-lived cohort of older adults. b. List some of the age related changes that can affect communications-vision loss, hearing loss. Physical processes include listening, speaking, gesturing, reading, writing, touching, and moving. The psychological aspects involve cognitive processes such as attention, memory, self-awareness, organization, and reasoning.
Vision, hearing, touch, smell, taste, movement, speech, c. Define AAC and the patients that would benefit from it. System is “an integrated group of components, including symbols, aids, strategies and techniques used by individuals to enhance communication”. Patients who have the ability to effectively use a prescribed communication system. d. What is the most commonly used hearing aid? Behind the ear hearing-aide e. Which hearing aid covers the entire range of hearing loss? Behind the ear hearing-aide f. What are the two major types of assistive devices used to improve hearing? Assistive listening devices and hearing aids. g. What are the four major types of assistive listening devices? Personal frequency modulation systems, infrared systems, induction loop systems, and one-to-one communicators. BTE (behind the ear)
BTEs are about 1 inch long and worn behind the outer ear. A small tube connects with the amplification device behind the ear and delivers amplified sound into the ear canal. The device has an adjustable volume control and is battery powered. It is the most common style of hearing aid. These devices are suitable for the entire range of hearing loss. OTE (over the ear)
This is a new style that is very small and sits on top of the outer ear. ITE (in the ear) ITEs are custom-fitted devices molded to the contour of the outer ear. The device has an adjustable volume control and a battery; however, both are much smaller than ones used in a BTE device. Some users have difficulty seeing or manipulating the control and battery. These devices are used for mild to moderate hearing loss. ITC (in the canal)
ITCs are tiny devices that fit into the ear canal and are barely visible. They are customized to fit the size and shape of the ear canal. Although cosmetically appealing, their small size is a drawback for some individuals. CIC (completely in the canal)
CICs are the smallest type of device in the in the ear class. The entire device fits within the canal. Although cosmetically flattering, the small size is a true disadvantage because of difficulty handling and positioning the device. This device is the most expensive model of hearing aid. Understand what can cause difficulties with communications-Physiological changes associated with aging or secondary to chronic illness and disease can pose a barrier to communication. Common physiological changes associated with aging that interfere with communication include high-frequency hearing loss, loss of dentition, reduced vital capacity, and reduced oral motor function. Chapter 6 provides more detailed information about these changes.
Understand the environment that facilitates therapeutic communication-inviting (An invitation says to the other person that you are interested in them and sharing time with them.) Arranging the environment (The environment should be comfortable, provide privacy, and minimize distractions that could be barriers to communication, such as noise or poor lighting.) Maximize communication (The third principle is to use communication strategies that maximize the individual’s ability to understand the message. Communication is critical in health care, yet many consumers have difficulty understanding the language of health care due to language barriers, illiteracy, or limited literacy.)
Maximize understanding (The next principle is to maximize understanding. The most important skill to help maximize understanding is to learn to listen. Learning to listen is essential to good communications. It is much easier to hear than it is to listen. Listening requires not only hearing the words spoken, but also understanding their meaning and the context in which they are spoken.) Following through (The final principle is to follow up and follow through. Words backed by actions help develop trust. A relationship built on trust and concern for the welfare of others is critical to optimal health outcomes. These simple techniques can be applied to all of our communications.)
What are the five A’s to tobacco cessation:
The 5 As
Ask about smoking status at each health care visit.
Advise client to quit smoking.
Assess client’s willingness to quit smoking at this time.
Assist client to quit using counseling and pharmacotherapy.
Arrange for follow-up within one week of scheduled quit date. What are the five R’s to tobacco cessation:
The 5 Rs
Relevance: Ask the client to think about why quitting may be personally relevant for him or her. Risks of smoking are identified by the client.
Rewards of quitting are identified by the client.
Roadblocks or barriers to quitting are identified by the client. Repetition of this process at every clinic visit. Most people who successfully quit smoking require multiple attempts. What is the criterion for the pneumococcal vaccine: Older adults, especially those with chronic illnesses or who live in nursing homes, are susceptible to pneumococcal pneumonia, which results in death in over one-third of clients over 65 years of age who acquire the disease.
The emergence of drug-resistant strains of pneumococcal pneumonia underscores the importance of acquired immunization against the illness. Pneumococcal vaccine is given once for clients who are 65 years of age or older. In most cases of elder abuse who is the perpetrator: a family member In any situation where you suspect abuse, what is the first step: 1) report abuse and neglect to adult protective services or other state-mandated agencies; 2) ensure that there is a safety plan and assess safety; 3) assess the client’s cognitive, emotional, functional, and health status; and 4) assess the frequency, severity, and intent of abuse.