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Cardiovascular Review Sheet Essay

The following questions refer to Activity 1: Studying the Effect of Flow Tube Radius on Fluid Flow.

1. At which radius was the fluid flow rate the highest? 6.0 mm

2. What was the flow rate at this radius? 1017.2 mmHg

3. Describe the relationship between flow rate and radius size. The relationship between the flow rate and the radius size is direct with the formula flow rate=radius to the fourth power.

4. What happens to blood vessels in the body if increased blood flow is needed? The blood vessels dilate to increase the flow to where the blood is needed in the body. The following questions refer to Activity 2: Studying the Effect of Viscosity on Fluid Flow.

5. At what viscosity level was the fluid flow rate the highest? 1.0

6. Describe the relationship between flow rate and viscosity. The relationship is inversed; meaning a fluid that has a high viscosity has a slow flow because it resists the flow. Fluid that has a low viscosity will flow faster because it is less resistance to the flow.

7. Was the effect of viscosity greater or less than the effect of radius on fluid flow? Why? Less, the radius of blood vessels effect flow more because the large blood vessels allow more blood to flow through regardless of viscosity.

8. What effect would anemia have on blood flow? Why? The effect would cause a decrease in blood flow because anemia causes the blood vessels to constrict.

The following questions refer to Activity 3: Studying the Effect of Flow Tube Length on Fluid Flow.

9. At what flow tube length was the flow rate the highest? 10mm

10. Describe the relationship between flow tube length and fluid flow rate. The relationship between flow tube length and fluid flow rate is when the tube length is shorter the faster the flow.

11. What effect do you think obesity would have on blood flow? Why? When blood vessels lengthen, they cause a flow of blood to decrease, because there is only roughly 7 miles of blood vessel for every 1 pound of fat. When someone gains weight, the body has to produce more blood vessels which lead to decreased blood flow and high blood pressure.

The following questions refer to Activity 4: Studying the Effect of Pressure on Fluid Flow.

12. What effect did increased pressure have on the fluid flow rate? The effect that increases pressure have on the fluid flow rate is that the greater the pressure the faster the flow.

13. In the body, where does the driving pressure for fluid flow come from? The driving pressure for fluid flow comes from the heart.

Pump Mechanics The following questions refer to Activity 5: Studying the Effect of Radius on Pump Activity.

14. What happened to the flow rate as the right vessel radius was increased? When the right vessel radius was increased the flow rate increases.

15. What happened to the rate (strokes/min) as the right vessel radius was increased? Why did this occur? Stroke rate increased as the right vessel radius increased because the beaker emptying time decreased.

The following questions refer to Activity 6: Studying the Effect of Stroke Volume on Pump Activity.

16. At what stroke volume tested was the pump rate the lowest? 120

17. Describe the relationship between stroke volume and pump rate. The relationship between stroke volume and pump rate is that as stroke volume increases, the pump rate decreases. This happens because this is an inverse relationship.

18. Use the relationship in question 17 to explain why an athlete’s resting heart rate would be lower than that of a sedentary individual. An athlete has a higher stroke volume than a sedentary individual, meaning the athlete needs fewer heart beats to achieve the same cardiac output.

The following questions refer to Activity 7: Studying Combined Effects.

19. How did decreasing the left flow tube radius affect pump chamber filling time? Hint: Look at the change in flow rate and relate this to filling time. When decreasing the left flow tube radius to affect the pump chamber filling time is by decreasing the left flow tube caused by an increase in the pump chamber filling time.

20. When the left beaker pressure was decreased to 10 mm Hg, what happened to the filling time? After the left beaker pressure was decreased to 10mm Hg, the filling time increased in response to decreased pressure in the left beaker. The following questions refer to Activity 8: Studying Compensation.

21. With the right flow tube radius decreased to 2.5 mm, what conditions did you change to bring the flow rate back to normal? The conditions that I changed to bring the flow rate back to normal were the increase left flow tube radius, increase pump pressure, increase left baker pressure and decrease right beaker pressure.

22. A decreased tube radius is analogous to atherosclerosis (plaque formation in vessels). Describe the effect this would have on resistance in the arterial system and how the human heart might compensate for this change. Atherosclerosis causes an increased atrial resistance which causes the heart to compensate by increasing pumping pressure.


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